Strength of evidence

 

This page highlights all of the Knowledge Summaries published in Veterinary Evidence by the strength of evidence found.

If no primary research literature is found following a search of the literature then that is an important finding. Particularly if the search is on an important and common question that can have a high impact on patient care. The value of finding a lack of evidence (little or no published literature) is often underestimated and overlooked; it is a key finding to drive further research and informs the current knowledge or lack thereof.

We are of the stance that a Knowledge Summary with no evidence or not enough evidence is still a valuable outcome that should be shared.

The aim of this list is to highlight the information needs and evidence gaps, currently found within veterinary literature, to both funders and researchers applying for funding.

Knowledge Summaries evaluate the strength of evidence provided by the identified papers. The clinical bottom line in a Knowledge Summary provides the reader with a qualified answer to the clinical question posed.

The strength of evidence (or the confidence in the outcomes) provided by a study can be deduced from the study type, as well as factors that increase (e.g. large sample size) or reduce (e.g. lack of blinding) the strength of evidence.

All Knowledge Summaries published within Veterinary Evidence have been categorised into the below four levels of collective evidence as outlined by the author within the clinical bottom line:

Strong evidence

 

Species

Title

Year

Level of evidence

Canine

In Bitches Diagnosed with Pyometra, is Medical Therapy Using Antibiosis Alone as Effective as Combining Ovariohysterectomy with Antibiosis in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality?

2016

Strong

Canine

Which is More Effective in Altering the Intra-Gastric pH in Dogs, Omeprazole or Ranitidine?

2016

Strong

Production

Does Heat Stress Affect Immune Function in Dairy Cows?

2016

Strong

Canine

Is the Use of Hypertonic Saline Effective in Reducing Intracranial Pressure After Traumatic Brain Injury in Dogs?

2017

Strong

Canine

In Dogs With Traumatic Elbow Luxation, Does Treatment Using Closed Reduction and Conservative Management Have a Better Prognosis Than Those Treated With Open Reduction and Surgery?

2017

Strong

Canine and Feline

In Cats and Dogs Does Laparoscopic Ovariectomy Offer Advantages Over Open Ovariectomy for Postoperative Recovery?

2017

Strong

Equine

In an Adult Horse With Severe Asthma (Previously Recurrent Airway Obstruction) Does Using Inhaled Corticosteroids Result in an Equal Improvement in Clinical Signs When Compared to Systemic Corticosteroids?

2018

Strong

Production

Are Sand or Composted Bedding Cubicles Suitable Alternatives to Rubber Matting for Housing Dairy Cows?

2018

Strong

Canine

Choosing Treatment for Dogs With Generalised Demodicosis – Isoxazolines or Imidacloprid and Moxidectin?

2019

Strong

Canine

The Use of Ultrasonography for Detection of Meniscal Damage in Dogs

2019

Strong

Canine and Feline

Is There Any Evidence to Support the Use of Garlic as a Wormer for Dogs and Cats in the UK?

2019

Strong

Production

Performance and Behavioural Effects of Separating Dairy Cows and Their Calves at Birth

2019

Strong

Rabbit

Comparison of 0.2 Mg/kg Vs. 1.0 Mg/kg of Oral Meloxicam for Safe and Effective Analgesia in Domestic Rabbits

2019

Strong

Moderate evidence

Weak evidence

 

Species

Title

Year

Level of evidence

Canine

The Evidence Behind the Diagnostic Investigation of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

Is Robenacoxib Superior to Meloxicam in Improving Patient Comfort in Dogs Diagnosed With a Degenerative Joint Process?

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

Is there enough evidence to recommend surgical treatment as opposed to conservative treatment for dogs affected by bicipital tenosynovitis?

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

Are Old Dogs Who Undergo Total Hip Replacement More Predisposed to Perioperative Femoral Fractures than Young Dogs?

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

Does Physical Therapy after a TPLO Lead to Improvement of the 1-Year Post-Operative Peak Vertical Force?

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

Are Dogs That Eat Quickly More Likely to Develop a Gastric Dilatation (+/- Volvulus) Than Dogs That Eat Slowly?

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

The Evidence Behind the Diagnostic Investigation of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy

2016

Weak evidence

Equine

No Evidence That Therapeutic Systemic Corticosteroid Administration is Associated With Laminitis in Adult Horses Without Underlying Endocrine or Severe Systemic Disease.

2016

Weak evidence

General

Non-Clinical Benefits of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine

2016

Weak evidence

General

In Small Animal Surgery Are Alcoholic Hand Rubs Superior to Scrubbing Brushes and Antimicrobial Soap at Reducing Bacterial Counts?

2016

Weak evidence

General

Can I Hang? Ideal Time to Replace Isotonic Crystalloid Intravenous Fluids and Sets to Prevent Fluid Contamination and Blood Stream Infection: a Knowledge Summary

2016

Weak evidence

Production

In Dairy Cows with Clinical Mastitis Do Systemic Antimicrobials in Addition to Intramammary Antimicrobials Improve Clinical Cure Rates Compared to Intramammary Antimicrobials Only?

2016

Weak evidence

Canine

Are Dogs That Are Fed from a Raised Bowl at an Increased Risk of Gastric Dilation Volvulus Compared with Floor-Fed Dogs?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

Are Novel Allergen or Hydrolysed Diets an Effective Means of Reducing the Gastro-intestinal Signs in Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease When Compared to Oral Prednisolone?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

Are Dogs Fed a Kibble-Based Diet More Likely to Experience an Episode of Gastric Dilatation Volvulus Than Dogs Fed an Alternative Diet?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

In Dogs With Pyothorax Does Medical Management Alone, Invasive Medical Management, or Surgical Management Result in Better Long-term Outcome?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

Is Alpha-casozepine Efficacious at Reducing Anxiety in Dogs?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

In Dogs With a European Adder Bite, Does the Use of Antivenom With Supportive Treatment Compared to Supportive Treatment Alone Improve Time to Recovery?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

Does Adding Transdermal Nitroglycerine to Other Therapies Used for Management of Left-sided Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs Speed the Resolution of Clinical Signs?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine and Feline

Does the Use of Lidocaine in Dogs and Cats Reduce Post-Operative Tracheitis?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine and Feline

Choice of Suture Pattern for Linea Alba Closure

2017

Weak evidence

Equine

Evidence Supporting Intralesional Stem Cell Therapy to Improve Equine Flexor Tendon Healing

2017

Weak evidence

Equine

In Horses With Chronic Laminitis, Do Venograms Compared to Plain Radiographs Give Greater Diagnostic or Prognostic Information?

2017

Weak evidence

Equine

In Adult Horses With Septic Peritonitis, Does Peritoneal Lavage Combined With Antibiotic Therapy Compared to Antibiotic Therapy Alone Improve Survival Rates?

2017

Weak evidence

Feline

Are Adult Cats Fed on Wet Maintenance Diets Less at Risk of Developing Chronic Kidney Disease Compared to Adult Cats Fed on Dry Maintenance Diets?

2017

Weak evidence

Canine

In Dogs That Have Had Intussusception Does Enterοplication Prevent Recurrence?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

Do Palliative Steroids Prolong Survival in Dogs With Multicentric Lymphoma?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

Are Pressure Vests Beneficial at Reducing Stress in Anxious and Fearful Dogs?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

In Adult Dogs, Does Feeding a Raw Food Diet Increase the Risk of Urinary Calculi Formation Compared to Feeding a Complete Dry Kibble Diet?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

Which Sternotomy Closure Method (Orthopaedic Wire or Suture) Is Recommended in Large Breed Dogs Undergoing a Median Sternotomy?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

Can Cytosine Arabinoside With Prednisolone Treatment for Canine Meningoencephalitis of Unknown Origin Increase Survival Time Compared to Prednisolone Treatment Alone?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

In Dogs Bitten by the European Adder (Vipera Berus), Do Corticosteroids and Supportive Treatment Improve Clinical Outcome Compared to Supportive Treatment Alone?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

In Dogs Does Feeding Raw Dietary Treats Reduce or Prevent Periodontal Disease?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

Does the Use of Intratesticular Blocks in Dogs Undergoing Orchiectomies Serve as an Effective Adjunctive Analgesic?

2018

Weak evidence

Equine

The Use of Antibiotics in Broodmares With Post-service Endometritis

2018

Weak evidence

Equine

Tenoscopic Debridement or Surgical Repair for Longitudinal Tears of the Equine Deep Digital Flexor Tendon Within the Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath?

2018

Weak evidence

Equine

Do Oral or Minimally Invasive Cheek Tooth Extraction Techniques Reduce the Incidence of Post-operative Complications in the Horse When Compared to Repulsion Methods?

2018

Weak evidence

Feline

Is Topical or Systemic Antimicrobial Therapy More Effective for the Treatment of Feline Acne With Secondary Bacterial Infection?

2018

Weak evidence

Feline

Does the Use of Intratesticular Blocks in Cats Undergoing Orchiectomies Serve as an Effective Adjunctive Analgesic?

2018

Weak evidence

Feline

Percutaneous Drainage in the Management of Urethral Blockages in Cats

2018

Weak evidence

General

When Preparing Veterinary Patients for Surgery Is the Friction (Back and Forth) Method of Scrubbing the Skin More Effective Than Concentric Circles at Reducing Bacterial Levels on the Skin?

2018

Weak evidence

Canine

Is an Anchoring or Pocket Technique Best for Surgical Repair of Cherry Eye in Dogs?

2019

Weak evidence

Canine

Tibial Diaphyseal Fracture Rates Following Tibial Tuberosity Advancement Rapid (TTAR) and Traditional Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (tTTA)

2019

Weak evidence

Canine

Treatment Duration With Steroid Monotherapy in Dogs With Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis

2019

Weak evidence

Canine

Outcome of Electrosurgery Versus Scalpel Blade for Intestinal Incisions in Dogs

2019

Weak evidence

Canine

In canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture is outcome following TPLO improved compared with lateral suture?

2019

Weak evidence

Equine

The Effects of Biannual Equine Influenza Vaccine on Performance in Adult Horses

2019

Weak evidence

Equine

Comparing Rest Alone to Bandaging and Rest in Horses With Superficial Digital Flexor Tendinopathy

2019

Weak evidence

Equine

Is removal of proximo-plantar osteochondral fragments necessary in young Thoroughbreds?

2019

Weak evidence

Equine

Does intra-articular injection of antimicrobials alongside corticosteroids or other medications reduce the risk of synovial sepsis?

2019

Weak evidence

Feline

Reluxation Rates Following Different Techniques for Open Stabilisation of Feline Coxofemoral Dislocations

2019

Weak evidence

Feline

Can Iodine-restricted Diets Normalise Serum Total Thyroxine (TT4) and Subsequently Improve Clinical Signs in Cats With Hyperthyroidism?

2019

Weak evidence

Feline

Should Levetiracetam or Imepitoin Be Used in Preference as Second-line Treatment in Pharmacoresistent Epileptic Cats?

2019

Weak evidence

General

Reducing Veterinary Waste: Surgical Site Infection Risk and the Ecological Impact of Woven and Disposable Drapes

2019

Weak evidence

Rabbits

In Solitary Rabbits, Does the Presence or Absence of a Mirror Affect Stress, Fear and Anxiety?

2019

Weak evidence

Zero evidence

 

Strength of evidence provided by the study designs

Definition

Strong

High level of confidence that the estimate of the effect reported by the studies lies close to the true effect. 

Moderate

Moderate confidence that the estimate of effect reported by the studies lies close to the true effect. 

Weak

Limited confidence that the estimate of effect reported by the studies lies close to the true effect.  Additional appropriate studies are required.

Zero

No studies available.

This page will be updated annually.