In Dogs Does Feeding Raw Dietary Treats Reduce or Prevent Periodontal Disease?

  • Nieky van Veggel Writtle University College Lordship Road Chelmsford Essex CM1 3RR
  • James Oxley Independent researcher 102 Bosworth Road Measham Swadlincote DE12 7LQ



Open Access Logo



PICO question

In Dogs Does Feeding Raw Dietary Treats Reduce or Prevent Periodontal Disease?

Clinical bottom line

Considering the weak evidence on raw bones and lack of evidence on other types of raw treats, veterinarians and veterinary nurses should be cautious when recommending raw treats to support periodontal health in dogs. Additionally, they should advise clients accordingly by relying on their clinical experience rather than the literature until more and better quality evidence is generated.

Open Access Peer Reviewed

Author Biography

Nieky van Veggel, Writtle University College Lordship Road Chelmsford Essex CM1 3RR

Senior Lecturer in Bioveterinary Science

Course Manager Bioveterinary Science


Bond, J. C. and Lindburg, D. G. (1990) Carcass Feeding of Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx Jubatus): The Effects of a Naturalistic Feeding Program on Oral Health and Psychological Well-Being. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 26 (4), pp. 373-382. DOI:

Fagan, D. A. (1980) Diet Consistency and Periodontal Disease in Exotic Carnivores. In: Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 34–37. Available at

Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Heikkilä, T., Pernu, N., Kovanen, S., Hielm-Björkman, A., Kivistö, R. (2017) Raw Meat-Based Diets in Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Sciences. 4(3), 33. DOI:

Finley, R., Reid-Smith, R., Weese, J.S. and Angulo, F.J. (2006) Human health implications of Salmonella-contaminated natural pet treats and raw pet food. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42 (5), pp. 686-691. DOI:

Freeman, L. M., Chandler, M. L., Hamper, B. A., et al. (2013) Current Knowledge about the Risks and Benefits of Raw Meat–Based Diets for Dogs and Cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 243 (11), pp. 1549-1558. DOI:

Lund, H. Brunnhuber, K. Juhl, C. et al. (2016) Towards Evidence Based Research. British Medical Journal, 355, October, i5440. DOI:

Marx, F.R., Machado, G.S., Pezzali, J.G., Marcolla, C.S., Kessler, A.M., Ahlstrom, O., Trevizan, L. (2016) Raw beef bones as chewing items to reduce dental calculus in Beagle dogs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 94 (1–2), pp. 18–23. DOI:

Morgan, S.K., Willis, S., Shepherd, M.L. (2017) Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products. PeerJ. 5, e3031. DOI:

O’Connor, A. M. Anderson, K. M. Goodell, C. K. et al. (2014) Conducting Systematic Reviews of Intervention Questions I: Writing the Review Protocol, Formulating the Question and Searching the Literature. Zoonoses and Public Health, 61, 28-38. DOI:

Reeves, B.C., Gaus, W. (2004) Guidelines for reporting non-randomised studies. Complementary Medicine Research. 11 Suppl 1, pp. 46–52. DOI:

Schlesinger, D. P. and Joffe, D. J. (2011) Raw food diets in companion animals: a critical review. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52 (1), pp. 50-54. Available at

Sterne, J.A., Hernán, M.A., Reeves, B.C., Savović, J., Berkman, N.D., Viswanathan, M., Henry, D., Altman, D.G., Ansari, M.T., Boutron, I., Carpenter, J.R., Chan, A.-W., Churchill, R., Deeks, J.J., Hróbjartsson, A., Kirkham, J., Jüni, P., Loke, Y.K., Pigott, T.D., Ramsay, C.R., Regidor, D., Rothstein, H.R., Sandhu, L., Santaguida, P.L., Schünemann, H.J., Shea, B., Shrier, I., Tugwell, P., Turner, L., Valentine, J.C., Waddington, H., Waters, E., Wells, G.A., Whiting, P.F., Higgins, J.P. (2016) ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. British Medical Journal. 355, i4919. DOI:

Taylor, E. and van Veggel, N. (2018) In adult dogs, does feeding a raw food diet increase the risk of urinary calculi formation compared to feeding a complete dry kibble diet?. Veterinary Evidence. 3(2). DOI:

van Bree, F.P.J., Bokken, G.C.A.M., Mineur, R., Franssen, F., Opsteegh, M., van der Giessen, J.W.B. van der, Lipman, L.J.A., Overgaauw, P.A.M., 2018. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs. Veterinary Record. DOI:

van Veggel, N. and Armstrong, M. (2017) In Dogs with Periodontal Disease Is Feeding a Complete Raw Meat Diet More Effective Than a Complete Kibble ‘Dental’ Diet at Reducing Periodontal Disease? Veterinary Evidence. 2(2). DOI:





Vol. 3 No. 3 (2018): The third issue of 2018

Section: Knowledge Summaries

Categories :  Small Animal  /  Dogs  /  Cats  /  Rabbits  /  Production Animal  /  Cattle  /  Sheep  /  Pig  /  Equine  /  Exotics  /