Cover Image

The Evidence Behind the Treatment of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy

Marios Charalambous, David Brodbelt, Holger Andreas Volk

Published:  11/02/2016    in:  Knowledge Summaries
Views
2663
HTML:
856
PDF:
674



Cover Image
Abstract
Oral phenobarbital and imepitoin in particular, followed by potassium bromide and levetiracetam are likely to be effective for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. There is strong evidence supporting the use of oral phenobarbital and imepitoin as ‘first line’ medications. However, there remains a lack of evidence for targeted treatment for the various individual epileptic phenotypes and quite limited evidence on direct comparisons of the efficacy between various anti-epileptic drugs.
Full Text:

HTML PDF


Click to see References Click to hide References
References

  1. Bhatti, S. F. et al. (2015) International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal: medical treatment of canine epilepsy in Europe. BMC Veterinary Research, 11:176 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0464-z
  2. Boothe, D.M., Dewey, C. and Carpenter, D.M. (2012) Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 240 (9), pp. 1073-1083 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.240.9.1073
  3. Charalambous, M., Brodbelt, D., & Volk, H. A. (2014). Treatment in canine epilepsy–a systematic review. BMC Veterinary Research, 10:257 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-014-0257-9
  4. Chung, J.Y., et al. (2012) Zonisamide monotherapy for idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 60 (6), pp. 357-359 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2012.680855
  5. Cunningham, J.G., Haidukewych, D., Jensen, H.A. (1983) Therapeutic serum concentrations of primidone and its metabolites, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide in epileptic dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 182 (10), pp. 1091-1094
  6. De Risio, L.,et al. (2015) International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal: diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs. BMC Veterinary Research, 11:148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0462-1
  7. Dewey, C.W., et al. (2009) Pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with suspected idiopathic epilepsy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 235 (12), pp. 1442-1449 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.235.12.1442
  8. Dewey C.W. et al. (2004) Zonisamide therapy for refractory idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 40 (4), pp. 285-291 http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/0400285
  9. European Medicines Agency (2012) CVMP assessment report for Pexion (EMEA/V/C/002543/0000). London: EMEA
  10. Fredsø, N. et al. (2014) Risk factors for survival in a university hospital population of dogs with epilepsy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 28 (6), pp. 1782-1788 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.12443
  11. Gaskill, C.L. and Kimber, W.J. (2010) Comparison of phenobarbital and potassium bromide monotherapies in the treatment of canine epilepsy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24 (3), pp. 696
  12. Govendir, M., Perkins, M. and Malik, R. (2005) Improving seizure control in dogs with refractory epilepsy using gabapentin as an adjunctive agent. Australian Veterinary Journal, 83 (10) pp. 602-608 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2005.tb13269.x
  13. Heynold, Y.et al. (1997) Clinical, epidemiological and treatment results of idiopathic epilepsy in 54 labrador retrievers: a long-term study. The Journal of Small Animal Practice, 38 (1), pp. 7-14 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1997.tb02977.x
  14. Jambroszyk, M., Tipold, A. and Potschka, H. (2011) Add-on treatment with verapamil in pharmacoresistant canine epilepsy. Epilepsia, 52 (2), pp. 284-291 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02886.x
  15. Kis, I. et al. (2012) The concentration of phenobarbital in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy in Croatia. In:  Peti Hrvatski Veterinarski Kongres s Meunarodnim Sudjelovanjem (5th Croatian Veterinary Congress), Tuheljske Toplice, Croatia, 10-13 October, pp. 397-403.
  16. Kiviranta, A.-M. et al. (2013) Topiramate as an add-on antiepileptic drug in treating refractory canine idiopathic epilepsy. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 54 (10), pp. 512-520.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsap.12130
  17. Law, T. H. et al. (2015) A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. British Journal of Nutrition, 114 (09), pp. 1438-1447 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711451500313X
  18. Loscher, W. et al. (2004) Anticonvulsant efficacy of the low-affinity partial benzodiazepine receptor agonist ELB 138 in a dog seizure model and in epileptic dogs with spontaneously recurrent seizures. Epilepsia, 45 (10), pp. 1228-1239 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-9580.2004.21204.x
  19. Matthews, H. et al. (2012) Effects of essential fatty acid supplementation in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy: a clinical trial. Veterinary Journal, 191 (3), pp. 396-398 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.04.018
  20. Morton, D.J. and Honhold, N. (1988) Effectiveness of a therapeutic drug monitoring service as an aid to the control of canine seizures. Veterinary Record, 122(15), pp. 346-349 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.122.15.346
  21. Munana, K.R. et al (2012) Evaluation of levetiracetam as adjunctive treatment for refractory canine epilepsy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 26 (2), pp. 341-348 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00866.x
  22. Muñana, K. R. et al (2002) Use of vagal nerve stimulation as a treatment for refractory epilepsy in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 221 (7), pp. 977-983 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2002.221.977
  23. Musteata, M., Hagiu, N. and Ghe, S. (2007) Therapeutic efficiency of the gabapentin-phenobarbital medication in refractory idiopathic epilepsy in dog. Medicina Veterinara, 51, pp. 352-357
  24. Nafe, L.A. and Kay, W. J. (1981) Sodium valproate: a preliminary clinical trial in epileptic dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 17 (1), pp. 131-133
  25. O'Brien, D.P.et al. (1997) Nimodipine for treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 210 (9), pp. 1298-1301
  26. Packer, R.M.A. et al (2015a) Assessment into the usage of levetiracetam usage in canine epilepsy. BMC Veterinary Research, 11 (25) http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0340-x
  27. Packer, R. M. A. et al. (2015b) Responses to successive anti-epileptic drugs in canine idiopathic epilepsy. Veterinary Record, 176 (8), pp. 203-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.102934
  28. Packer, R. M. A., Shihab, N. K., Torres, B. B. J., & Volk, H. A. (2014) Clinical risk factors associated with anti-epileptic drug responsiveness in canine epilepsy. PLoS ONE, 9(8) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106026
  29. Patterson, E.E. et al. (2005) Results of a ketogenic food trial for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19 (3) p. 421 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2005.tb00640.x
  30. Pearce, L. K. (1990) Potassium bromide as an adjunct to Phenobarbital for the management of uncontrolled seizures in dogs. Progress in Veterinary Neurology, 1, pp. 95-101
  31. Platt, S. R. et al. (2006) Treatment with gabapentin of 11 dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy. Veterinary Record, 159 (26), pp. 881-884 http://dx.doi.org/0.1136/vr.159.26.881
  32. Podell, M. and Fenner, W.R. (1993) Bromide therapy in refractory canine idiopathic epilepsy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 7 (5), pp. 318-327 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1993.tb01025.x
  33. Rieck, S., Rundfeldt, C. and Tipold, A. (2006) Anticonvulsant activity and tolerance of ELB138 in dogs with epilepsy: a clinical pilot study. Veterinary Journal, 172 (1), pp. 86-95 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.04.003
  34. Ruehlmann, D., Podell, M., March, P. (2001) Treatment of partial seizures and seizure-like activity with felbamate in six dogs.  Journal of Small Animal Practice, 42 (8), pp. 403-408 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2001.tb02490.x
  35. Rundfeldt, C., Tipold, A. and Löscher, W. (2015) Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of imepitoin in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy in a randomized controlled clinical study with long-term follow up. BMC Veterinary Research, 11: 228 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0548-9
  36. Schwartz-Porsche, D. J. U. (1991) Wirksamkeit von Bromid bei den therapieresistenten Epilepsien des Hundes. Tierarztliche Praxis, 19 (4), pp. 395-401
  37. Schwartz-Porsche, D., Loscher, W. and Frey, H. H. (1982) Treatment of canine epilepsy with primidone. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 181 (6), pp. 592-595
  38. Schwartz-Porsche, D., Loscher, W. and Frey, H.H. (1985) Therapeutic efficacy of phenobarbital and primidone in canine epilepsy: a comparison. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 8 (2). pp. 113-119 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.1985.tb00934.x
  39. Scorza, F. A. et al. (2009) Positive impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in a dog with drug-resistant epilepsy: a case study. Epilepsy & Behavior, 15 (4), pp. 527-528 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.05.013
  40. Srivastava, M., Singh, N. K. and Srivastava, A. (2013) Management of Phenobarbital Refractory Idiopathic Epilepsy by Potassium Bromide in Dogs. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 1 (1), pp. 25-27
  41. Steinberg, M.F.D. (2004) Levetiracetam therapy for long-term idiopathic epileptic dogs. ACVIM Abstracts. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 18 (3), p. 410
  42. Tipold, A. et al. (2015) Clinical efficacy and safety of imepitoin in comparison with phenobarbital for the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38 (2), pp. 160-168  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12151
  43. Trepanier, L.A. et al (1998) Therapeutic serum drug concentrations in epileptic dogs treated with potassium bromide alone or in combination with other anticonvulsants: 122 cases (1992-1996). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 213 (10), pp. 1449-1453
  44. Varshney, J. P. (2007) Clinical management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs with homeopathic< i> Belladonna 200C: a case series. Homeopathy, 96 (1), pp. 46-48 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.homp.2006.09.002
  45. Volk, H.A. et al (2008) The efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in pharmacoresistant epileptic dogs. Veterinary Journal, 2008, 176 (3), pp.310-319 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.03.002
  46. Von Klopmann, T., Rambeck, B. and Tipold, A. (2007) Prospective study of zonisamide therapy for refractory idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 48 (3), pp. 134-138 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00290.


Refbacks
  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Marios Charalambous, David Brodbelt, Holger Andreas Volk

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Made possible through a project grant from the RCVS Council.

RCVS