In free-roaming dog populations, does egg-based oral rabies vaccination programmes result in improved bait efficacy?



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PICO Question

In free-roaming dog populations, does an egg-based oral rabies vaccination (ORV) compared with meat and fish based ORVs result in improved bait efficacy?


Clinical bottom line

Category of research


Number and type of study designs reviewed

Three non-blinded, control trials were critically reviewed.

Strength of evidence


Outcomes reported

Variables assessed in this Knowledge Summary included the type of bait that stray dogs were most interested in, and whether or not the dog was successfully vaccinated by release of the vaccine sachet into the oral cavity.


There is weak evidence to show that stray dogs prefer egg-based baits in compared to other bait types, despite egg-based baits allowing for more successful perforation of the vaccine sachet, and hence a higher chance of a successful oral rabies vaccination.


How to apply this evidence in practice

The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.

Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.


Bonwitt, J., Bonaparte, S., Blanton, J., Gibson, A.D., Hoque, M., Kennedy, E., Islam, K., Siddiqi, U.R., Wallace, R.M. & Azam, S. (2020). Oral bait preferences and feasibility of oral rabies vaccination in Bangladeshi dogs. Vaccine. 38(32), 5021–5026. DOI:

Chanachai, K., Wongphruksasoong, V., Vos, A., Leelahapongsathon, K., Tangwangvivat, R., Sagarasaeranee, O., Lekcharoen, P., Trinuson, P. & Kasemsuwan, S. (2021). Feasibility and Effectiveness Studies with Oral Vaccination of Free-Roaming Dogs against Rabies in Thailand. Viruses. 13(4), 571. DOI:

Gibson, A.D., Mazeri S., Yale, G., Desai. S., Naik, V., Corfmat, J., Ortmann, S., King, A., Müller, T., Handel, I., Bronsvoort, B.M., Gamble, L., Mellanby, R.J. & Vos, A. (2019). Development of a Non-Meat-Based, Mass Producible and Effective Bait for Oral Vaccination of Dogs against Rabies in Goa State, India. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 4(3), 118. DOI:

Müller, F.T. & Freuling, C.M. (2018). Rabies control in Europe: an overview of past, current and future strategies. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics). 37(2), 409–419. DOI:

Vol. 8 No. 4 (2023): The fourth issue of 2023

Section: Knowledge Summaries

Categories :  Small Animal  /  Dogs  /  Cats  /  Rabbits  /  Production Animal  /  Cattle  /  Sheep  /  Pig  /  Equine  /  Exotics  /