Use of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion in Dogs With Suspected Tremorgenic Mycotoxicosis: 53 Cases

  • Foteini Kormpou Langford Vets, University of Bristol, Langford, BS405DU
  • Aoife O’Sullivan Vets Now, Penguin House, Dunfermline, KY11 8SG
  • Laura Troth Vets Now, Penguin House, Dunfermline, KY11 8SG
  • Sophie Adamantos Langford Vets, University of Bristol, Langford, BS405DU



Open Access Logo




Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in dogs presenting with suspected tremorgenic mycotoxicosis based on signs of intoxication and known ingestion of mouldy food or compost.

Background: ILE is being used for toxicoses associated with fat soluble agents. As tremorgenic mycotoxins are lipophilic in nature, the use of ILE may be of benefit in these patients. 

Methods: Medical records of all dogs examined at any Vets Now clinic between November 2012 and November 2016, in which ILE had been used, were reviewed and 53 cases were included in the study.

Results: In 96% of cases there was clinical improvement recorded post ILE administration within a median time of 4 hours. No adverse effects were seen during the infusion or up to the time of discharge.

Conclusion: The administration of ILE seems to be associated with a beneficial effect in the short term in dogs. Prospective evaluation of this therapy is warranted to further evaluate the use of ILE in these cases.

Open Access Peer Reviewed


Barker, A.K. et al. (2013). Tremorgenic Mycotoxicosis in dogs. CompendContinEduc Vet 35(2):E2.

Bates, N. et al. (2013). Lipid infusion in the management of poisoning: a report of 6 canine cases. Veterinary Record 172, 339. DOI:

Boysen, S., Rozanski, E., Chan, D., Grobe, T., Fallon, M. and Rush, J. (2002). Tremorgenic mycotoxicosis in four dogs from a single household. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 221(10), pp.1441-1444.

Crandell D. Toxicological emergencies. In: Mathews KA, ed. Veterinary Emergency and CriticalCare Manual. 2nd ed. Guelph: Lifelearn Publishers; 2006:630-640.

Epstein, S.E. and Hollingsworth, S.R. (2013). Ivermectin-induced blindness treated with intravenous lipid therapy in a dog. Journal of Veterinary and Emergency Critical Care 23, 58-62. DOI:

Eriksen, G.S. et al. (2010). Poisoning of dogs with tremorgenic Penicillium toxins. Med Mycol 48(1):188-196.

Fernandez, A.L., Lee JA, Rahilly L, Hovda L, Brutlag AG, Engebretsen K. (2011). The use of intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote in veterinary toxicology. J Vet EmergCrit Care. 21: 309-320. DOI:

Fettiplace MR, Weinberg G. Past, present and future of lipid resuscitation therapy. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2015; 39(1 Suppl):72S-83S. DOI:

French D, et al. Partition constant and volume of distribution as predictors of clinical efficacy of lipid rescue for toxicological emergencies. Clinical Toxicology (2011), Early Online, 1–9. DOI:

Gwaltney-Brant, S. and Meadows, I. (2012) Use of Intravenous lipid emulsions for treating certain poisoning cases in small animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 42, 251-262. DOI:

Haworth, M.D. and Smart, L. (2012) Use of intravenous lipid therapy in three cases of feline permethrin toxicosis. Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care 22, 697-702. DOI:

Kirsten E. Waratuke, DVM ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, What’s the Take-Home? / NAVC Clinician’s Brief / October 2012. Pp:49-50.

Kuo, K. and Odunayo, A. (2013) Adjunctive therapy with intravenous lipid emulsion and methocarbamol for permethrin toxicity in cats. Journal of Veterinary Emergency Critical Care 23, 436-441. DOI:

Levine, M. et al. (2016) "Systematic review of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for non-local anesthetics toxicity", Clinical Toxicology, 54(3), pp. 194-221. DOI:

Norris PJ, Smith CCT, De Belleroche J, et al. Actions of tremorgenic fungal toxins on neurotransmitter release. J Neurochem 1980;34:33-42. 10. DOI:

Parratt C. (2014) Intravenous lipid rescue for tremorgenic mycotoxicosis: assessment of response to therapy using a smart phone [abstract]. 13th EVECCS Annual Meeting, 12-15 June, Prague, pp272-273.

Peacock, R. E., Hosgood, G., Swindells, K. L. and Smart, L. (2015), A randomized, controlled clinical trial of intravenous lipid emulsion as an adjunctive treatment for permethrin toxicosis in cats. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 25: 597–605. doi:10.1111/vec.12322.

Puschner B (2009) Penitrem A and roquefortine. In: Plumlee KH, ed. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. pp:258-259.

Rothschild L et al (2010) Intravenous lipid emulsion in Clinical Toxicology Scand J Trauma ResuscEmerg Med. 2010; 18: 51.

Rundberget T, Wilkins AL (2002) Determination of Penicillium mycotoxins in foods and feeds using liquid chromatography-mass spectromectry. J Chromatog A 2002;964;189-197.

Schell MM: Tremorgenic Mycotoxin Intoxication. VET MED 95(4):283-286, 2000.

Seitz MA, Burkitt-Creedon JM. Persistent gross lipemia and suspected corneal lipidosis following intravenous lipid therapy in a cat with permethrin toxicosis. J Vet EmergCrit Care 2016 Nov-Dec;26(6):804-8. DOI:

Talcott, P. (2013) "Mycotoxins", Small Animal Toxicology, pp. 677-682. DOI:

Tiwary AK et al (2009) Using roquefortine C as a biomarker for penitrem A intoxication. J Vet Diagn Invest 21(2):237-239. DOI:

Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS) [Online] available from: [Accessed: 22nd May 2018]

Young KL et al (2003) Tremorgenic mycotoxin intoxication with penitrem A and roquefortine in two dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 222(1):52-53. DOI: