PICOs for Knowledge Summaries

Interested in writing a Knowledge Summary? Pick one of our PICOs from the below six topics (or write your own!) then contact the Managing Editor, bridget@rcvsknowledge.org stating your PICO. You'll then be guided through the next steps

 

Equine

Submit an equine question to be answered in Veterinary Evidence 

  1. Answered:In Adult Horses With Septic Peritonitis, Does Peritoneal Lavage Combined With Antibiotic Therapy Compared to Antibiotic Therapy Alone Improve Survival Rates?
  2. Answer me: In horses with superficial digital tendonitis is bandaging and rest compared to rest alone more effective at promoting healing?
  3. Answer me: In horses with heel bulb lacerations, does casting the distal limb compared to bandaging result in faster healing?
  4. Answer me: In horses in low and middle-income countries, are breast-strap harnesses more effective than breast-collar straps in preventing wounds?
  5. Answer me: In lame horses affected by osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints (bone spavin), are bisphosphonates more effective than NSAIDs in long-term alleviation of lameness?
  6. Answered: In horses with chronic laminitis, do venograms compared to plain radiographs give greater diagnostic or prognostic information?
  7. Answer me: In horses that are lame due to osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints (bone spavin), is intra-articular medication with corticosteroids compared to systemic bisphosphonate treatment more effective in long-term lameness reduction?
  8. Being answered: In horses with allergen-related Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), is immunotherapy compared to environmental reduction of allergen exposure more effective in disease modification?
  9. Answer me: In three day event horses, does biannual routine influenza vaccination compared to annual routine influenza vaccination reduce performance levels?
  10. Being answered: In Broodmares with post-service endometritis, is antibiotic intervention with other routine therapies superior to other routine therapies without antibiotic intervention in increasing pregnancy rate?
  11. Being answered: In three day event horses, do bit seats compared to no bit seats improve performance?
  12. Answer me: In young thoroughbreds with osteochondral fragments of the proximo-plantar aspect of the proximal phalanx, does pre-emptive surgical removal of the fragments compared to conservative [non-surgical] management reduce the incidence of subsequent lameness?
  13. Being answered: In Broodmares with Klebsiella-positive clitoral swabs, are antibiotics more effective than transfaunation as measured by resolution of colonisation?
  14. Answer me: In adult horses with superficial digital flexor tendonitis, does icing the leg in addition to non-steoidal anti-inflammatory therapy compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment alone speed the healing process?
  15. Answer me: In Broodmares with Pseudomonas-positive clitoral swabs, are antibiotics more effective than transfaunation as measured by resolution of colonisation?
  16. Being answered: In horses with longitudinal tears of the deep digital flexor tendon, is surgical repair as effective as tenoscopic debridement alone for returning to previous level of performance?
  17. Being answered: Do modern, oral/minimally invasive cheek tooth extraction techniques reduce the incidence of post-operative complications in the horse when compared to traditional repulsion methods?

Canine emergency

  1. Being answered: In dogs with haemorrhage gastroenteritis, is treatment with antimicrobial therapy plus supportive therapy superior to treatment with supportive therapy only, as measured by time to recovery?
  2. Being answered: In dogs with cervical pain, are glucocorticoids superior to NSAIDs in providing analgesia?
  3. Being answered: In dogs with haemorrhagic gastroenteritis, does the administration of an antibiotic [compared to no antibiotic] decrease the duration of the episode?
  4. Answer me: In dogs in status epilepticus, does application of benzodiazepines affect the prognosis as measured by mortality rate, when compared to post-seizure monitoring (may need example) alone?
  5. Answered: In Dogs With a European Adder Bite, Does the Use of Antivenom With Supportive Treatment Compared to Supportive Treatment Alone Improve Time to Recovery?
  6. Answer me: In dogs with visceral pain, is Butorphanol more effective than Buprenorphine or Hydromorphone in providing analgesia?
  7. Being answered: In dogs with infectious tracheobronchitis, does antibiotic therapy decrease time to resolution of clinical signs, when compared to antimicrobial chemotherapy?
  8. Answered: Does Adding Transdermal Nitroglycerine to Other Therapies Used for Management of Left-sided Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs Speed the Resolution of Clinical Signs?
  9. Answer me: In dogs with Methaldehyde intoxications, are benzodiazepines (such as diazepam or midazolam) more effective than Methocarbamol in relaxing muscles/reducing occurrence of seizures?
  10. Being answered: In dogs that have swallowed a sharp foreign body, is endoscopy effective in removing the object, in comparison to emesis?
  11. Answer me: In dogs with permethrin intoxication is Intralipid IVLE therapy or ClinOleic IVLE therapy more effective in reducing time to recovery?
  12. Answer me: In dogs with an adder bite, does antibiotic intervention reduce the incidence of wound infection, when compared to no antibiotic intervention?
  13. Answer me: In dogs with an adder bite, does the use of Penicillin (eg. Amoxicillin and Clavulanate) reduce the incidence of wound infection, when compared to cephalosporins?

Feline emergency

  1. Being answered: In cats with cystitis, is combined treatment with antibiotics and analgesia or treatment with analgesia alone more effective at resolving clinical signs?
  2. Answer me: In adult cats, is honey effective in improving the healing of skin wounds, when compared to pharmaceutical topical treatments?
  3. Being answered: In cats with traumatic brain injury, is Hypertonic Saline more effective than Mannitol , when measuring neurological recovery OR survival?
  4. Being answered: In cats with permethrin intoxication is Intralipid IVLE therapy or ClinOleic IVLE therapy more effective in reducing time to recovery?
  5. Being answered: In adult cats with lower urinary tract disease, is behavioural management more effective than drug management in reducing the risk of relapse?
  6. Answer me: In adult male cats with a urethra blockage, is indwelling catheterisation more effective than percutaneous drainage in reducing the incidence of recurrence?
  7. Being answered: In cats with traumatic brain injury, is Hypertonic Saline more effective than Lactated Ringer's solution (LRS), when measuring neurological recovery OR survival?
  8. Answer me: In cats with Methaldehyde intoxications, are benzodiazepines (such as diazepam or midazolam) more effective than Methocarbamol in relaxing muscles/reducing occurrence of seizures?
  9. Being answered: In cats, is urinalysis more effective than ultrasound in diagnosing chronic lethargy?
  10. Being answered: In cats, is urinalysis more effective than radiography in diagnosing chronic lethargy?

Canine

  1. Being answered: In dogs with HGE, does the use of metronidazole, compared to no metronidazole shorten the time to recovery?
  2. Answer me: In dogs with distended anal glands does expressing glands versus not expressing glands reduce impaction and infection?
  3. Being answered: In dogs, is neutering pre-puberty superior to neutering post-puberty, in improving behaviour?
  4. Being answered: In canines with Kennel cough, does the use of anti-inflammatories, in comparison to absence of anti-inflammatories, shorten the time to recovery?
  5. Being answered: In dogs with a cruciate tear is medical treatment as effective as surgery in reducing time to recovery?
  6. Answer me: In dogs with a cutaneous mass does surgery or non surgical treatment give a better quality of life? 
  7. Answered: In dogs with periodontal disease is feeding a complete raw meat diet more effective than a complete kibble 'dental' diet at reducing periodontal disease? 
  8. Answer me: In dogs with arthritis are prescription NSAIDs more effective than aspirin in reducing clinical signs? 
  9. Being answered: In dogs with kennel cough does the use of antibiotics compared with no antibiotics reduce time to recovery?
  10. Answer me: In dogs with diarrhoea is metronidazole or bismuth subsalicylate more effective in reducing diarrhoea frequency and improving fecal score?
  11. Being answered: In dogs with hairy ear canals e g poodles does plucking or not plucking reduce the risk of bacterial infection /chronic otitis?
  12. Being answered: In dogs with blood in faeces does treatment with amoxicillin clavulanate versus no treatment reduce the number of clinical cases progressing to sepsis?
  13. Answer me: In dogs with gingivitis does daily brushing with human (gingivitis specific) toothpaste, compared to regular canine toothpaste, reduce clinical signs?
  14. Answer me: In dogs with arthritis which gives the greatest improvement in pain scores - controlled exercise OR weight loss OR low level ("cold") laser treatment?
  15. Being answered: In dogs with IBD-related diarrhoea is Budesonide more effective than prednisone in improving fecal score?
  16. Being answered: Do obese dogs make up a larger percentage of the veterinary caseload than lean dogs?
  17. Answer me: In dogs with acute tracheobronchitis does treatment with theophylline versus TMPS lead to a shorter time to cessation of coughing?
  18. Answer me: In canine fractures, is low level laser more effective than low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in improving radiographic bone healing time?
  19. Being answered: In dogs does feeding raw feed treats reduce or prevent Periodontal Disease
  20. Being answered: In adult dogs, does feeding a complete raw diet affect urine composition
  21. Being answered: In dogs with traumatic elbow luxation, does closed reduction and conservative management result in a better outcome than open reduction and surgical management?
  22. Being answered: Does teeth brushing and it's varying frequency reduce risk of periodontal disease in dogs?

Feline

  1. Being answered: In cats with CKD, does controlling renal hypertension with amlodipine compared to ACE inhibitors decrease renal mortality?
  2. Answered: Are Adult Cats Fed on Wet Maintenance Diets Less at Risk of Developing Chronic Kidney Disease Compared to Adult Cats Fed on Dry Maintenance Diets?
  3. Being answered: In cats with idiopathic Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), is prednisolone more effective than NSAIDs in reducing clinical signs?
  4. Answer me: In adult cats, does a varied diet reduce the risk of developing a food intolerance/allergy, when compared to a consistent diet?
  5. Answer me: In cats, does a canned-food diet reduce the risk of developing a UTI, when compared to dry diets?
  6. Answer me: In cats, does obesity increase the risk of periodontal disease, in comparison to cats with a body condition score lower than 3?
  7. Answer me: In adult cats, does feeding grain free maintenance diet reduce the risk of obesity compared to feeding a maintenance diet containing grains?
  8. Answer me: Are adult cats fed on homemade diets less at risk of developing CKD compared to adult cats fed on commercial diets?
  9. Being answered: In cats with chin acne, are antibiotics superior to glucocorticoids in reducing clinical signs?
  10. Answer me: In cats older than 6, does onset obesity affect mortality, when compared to cats with a body condition score lower than 5?
  11. Answer me: In cats with renal hyperparathyroidism, does the use of calcitriol improve renal mortality, in comparison to dietary modification alone?
  12. Answer me: Are hand-reared kittens more likely to develop gastrointestinal problems than normally weaned kittens?
  13. Answer me: In obese cats, does feeding grain free diets help in reducing the body weight compared to feeding "weight reduction specific" diets containing grains?
  14. Being answered: In clinically hyperthyroid cats, is I-131 treatment superior to unilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy in normalising serum T4 level?
  15. Answer me: In cats under 10 years old, does the presence of arthritis affect body condition score, when compared to non-arthritic cats?
  16. Answer me: In adult cats, does feeding a homemade balanced diet improve the stool quality compared to feeding a commercial maintenance diet?
  17. Answer me: In cats with self-barbering, does hypoallergenic feeding improve clinical signs (measured through skin examination), in comparison to normal feeding?
  18. Answer me: In cats with chin acne, is topical benzoyl effective at reducing clinical signs, in comparison to no drug intervention?
  19. Answer me: In cats with chin acne, are topical antibiotics superior to systemic antibiotics in reducing clinical signs?
  20. Answer me: In cats with chin acne, are topical glucocorticoids superior to systemic glucocorticoids in reducing clinical signs?
  21. Answer me: In cats, does chronic self-barbering increase the incidence of atopic dermatitis, in comparison to cats with a healthy coat?

 Vet Nurse Knowledge Group PICOs

  1. Being answered: In rabbits displaying signs of anxiety/fear does the use of mirrors compared to no mirrors reduce the signs of anxiety/fear
  2. Being answered: In anxious dogs does the use of pressure vests compared to no pressure vests reduce the signs of anxiety/fear?
  3. Being answered: In patients undergoing catheter placement does the use of chlorhexidine and alcohol have greater antimicrobial action than alcohol alone?
  4. Being answered: In birthing bitches undergoing a caesarean does premedication with methadone compared to post procedural analgesic negatively affect suckling behaviour?
  5. Being answered: During venous catheter placement preparation, does the use of reusable devices compared to disposable devices for applying antiseptic agents reduce patient catheter site infection?
  6. Being answered: In post-operative patients does the use of cold laser therapy compared to not using any therapy reduce the healing time of the wound?
  7. Being answered: In patients undergoing surgical preparation is the friction (back and forth method) compared to using concentric circles more effective in reducing infection (reduce CFU)?
  8. Being answered: Are dogs with hairy ear canals compared to non hairy ear canals more likely to suffer from otitis externa?

Made possible through a project grant from the RCVS Council.

RCVS