PICOs for Knowledge Summaries

Interested in writing a Knowledge Summary? Pick one of our PICOs from the below six topics (or write your own!) then contact the Managing Editor, bridget@rcvsknowledge.org stating your PICO. You'll then be guided through the next steps

 

Equine

  1. Being answered: In adult horses with septic peritonitis, does peritoneal lavage combined with antibacterial therapy compared to antibacterial therapy alone improve survival rates?
  2. Answer me: In horses with superficial digital tendonitis is bandaging and rest compared to rest alone more effective at promoting healing?
  3. Answer me: In horses with heel bulb lacerations, does casting the distal limb compared to bandaging result in faster healing?
  4. Answer me: In horses in low and middle-income countries, are breast-strap harnesses more effective than breast-collar straps in preventing wounds?
  5. Answer me: In lame horses affected by osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints (bone spavin), are bisphosphonates more effective than NSAIDs in long-term alleviation of lameness?
  6. Answered: In horses with chronic laminitis, do venograms compared to plain radiographs give greater diagnostic or prognostic information?
  7. Answer me: In horses that are lame due to osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints (bone spavin), is intra-articular medication with corticosteroids compared to systemic bisphosphonate treatment more effective in long-term lameness reduction?
  8. Being answered: In horses with allergen-related Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), is immunotherapy compared to environmental reduction of allergen exposure more effective in disease modification?
  9. Answer me: In three day event horses, does biannual routine influenza vaccination compared to annual routine influenza vaccination reduce performance levels?
  10. Being answered: In Broodmares with post-service endometritis, is antibiotic intervention with other routine therapies superior to other routine therapies without antibiotic intervention in increasing pregnancy rate?
  11. Answer me: In three day event horses, do bit seats compared to no bit seats improve performance?
  12. Answer me: In young thoroughbreds with osteochondral fragments of the proximo-plantar aspect of the proximal phalanx, does pre-emptive surgical removal of the fragments compared to conservative [non-surgical] management reduce the incidence of subsequent lameness?
  13. Answer me: In Broodmares with Klebsiella-positive clitoral swabs, are antibiotics more effective than transfaunation as measured by resolution of colonisation?
  14. Answer me: In adult horses with superficial digital flexor tendonitis, does icing the leg in addition to non-steoidal anti-inflammatory therapy compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment alone speed the healing process?
  15. Answer me: In Broodmares with Pseudomonas-positive clitoral swabs, are antibiotics more effective than transfaunation as measured by resolution of colonisation?
  16. Being answered: In horses with longitudinal tears of the deep digital flexor tendon, is surgical repair as effective as tenoscopic debridement alone for returning to previous level of performance?
  17. Being answered: Do modern, oral/minimally invasive cheek tooth extraction techniques reduce the incidence of post-operative complications in the horse when compared to traditional repulsion methods?

Canine emergency

  1. Being answered: In dogs with haemorrhage gastroenteritis, is treatment with antimicrobial therapy plus supportive therapy superior to treatment with supportive therapy only, as measured by time to recovery?
  2. Being answered: In dogs with cervical pain, are glucocorticoids superior to NSAIDs in providing analgesia?
  3. Being answered: In dogs with haemorrhagic gastroenteritis, does the administration of an antibiotic [compared to no antibiotic] decrease the duration of the episode?
  4. Answer me: In dogs in status epilepticus, does application of benzodiazepines affect the prognosis as measured by mortality rate, when compared to post-seizure monitoring (may need example) alone?
  5. Being answered: In dogs with an adder bite, does use of anti-venom compared to no anti-venom improve time to recovery?
  6. Answer me: In dogs with visceral pain, is Butorphanol more effective than Buprenorphine or Hydromorphone in providing analgesia?
  7. Being answered: In dogs with infectious tracheobronchitis, does antibiotic therapy decrease time to resolution of clinical signs, when compared to antimicrobial chemotherapy?
  8. Being answered: In dogs with coughing secondary to left sided congestive heart failure does adding cutaneous nitroglycerin to pimobendan and furosemide compared to pimobendan and furosemide alone decrease time to resolution of pulmonary edema?
  9. Answer me: In dogs with Methaldehyde intoxications, are benzodiazepines (such as diazepam or midazolam) more effective than Methocarbamol in relaxing muscles/reducing occurrence of seizures?
  10. Being answered: In dogs that have swallowed a sharp foreign body, is endoscopy effective in removing the object, in comparison to emesis?
  11. Answer me: In dogs with permethrin intoxication is Intralipid IVLE therapy or ClinOleic IVLE therapy more effective in reducing time to recovery?
  12. Answer me: In dogs with an adder bite, does antibiotic intervention reduce the incidence of wound infection, when compared to no antibiotic intervention?
  13. Answer me: In dogs with an adder bite, does the use of Penicillin (eg. Amoxicillin and Clavulanate) reduce the incidence of wound infection, when compared to cephalosporins?

Feline emergency

  1. Being answered: In cats with cystitis, is combined treatment with antibiotics and analgesia or treatment with analgesia alone more effective at resolving clinical signs?
  2. Answer me: Answer me:In adult cats, is honey effective in improving the healing of skin wounds, when compared to pharmaceutical topical treatments?
  3. Being answered: In cats with traumatic brain injury, is Hypertonic Saline more effective than Mannitol , when measuring neurological recovery OR survival?
  4. Being answered: In cats with permethrin intoxication is Intralipid IVLE therapy or ClinOleic IVLE therapy more effective in reducing time to recovery?
  5. Being answered: In adult cats with lower urinary tract disease, is behavioural management more effective than drug management in reducing the risk of relapse?
  6. Answer me: In adult male cats with a urethra blockage, is indwelling catheterisation more effective than percutaneous drainage in reducing the incidence of recurrence?
  7. Being answered: In cats with traumatic brain injury, is Hypertonic Saline more effective than Lactated Ringer's solution (LRS), when measuring neurological recovery OR survival?
  8. Answer me: In cats with Methaldehyde intoxications, are benzodiazepines (such as diazepam or midazolam) more effective than Methocarbamol in relaxing muscles/reducing occurrence of seizures?
  9. Being answered: In cats, is urinalysis more effective than ultrasound in diagnosing chronic lethargy?
  10. Being answered: In cats, is urinalysis more effective than radiography in diagnosing chronic lethargy?

Canine

  1. Being answered: In dogs with HGE, does the use of metronidazole, compared to no metronidazole shorten the time to recovery?
  2. Answer me: In dogs with distended anal glands does expressing glands versus not expressing glands reduce impaction and infection?
  3. Being answered: In dogs, is neutering pre-puberty superior to neutering post-puberty, in improving behaviour?
  4. Being answered: In canines with Kennel cough, does the use of anti-inflammatories, in comparison to absence of anti-inflammatories, shorten the time to recovery?
  5. Being answered: In dogs with a cruciate tear is medical treatment as effective as surgery in reducing time to recovery?
  6. Answer me: In dogs with a cutaneous mass does surgery or non surgical treatment give a better quality of life? 
  7. Answered: In dogs with periodontal disease is feeding a complete raw meat diet more effective than a complete kibble 'dental' diet at reducing periodontal disease? 
  8. Answer me: In dogs with arthritis are prescription NSAIDs more effective than aspirin in reducing clinical signs? 
  9. Being answered: In dogs with kennel cough does the use of antibiotics compared with no antibiotics reduce time to recovery?
  10. Answer me: In dogs with diarrhoea is metronidazole or bismuth subsalicylate more effective in reducing diarrhoea frequency and improving fecal score?
  11. Being answered: In dogs with hairy ear canals e g poodles does plucking or not plucking reduce the risk of bacterial infection /chronic otitis?
  12. Being answered: In dogs with blood in faeces does treatment with amoxicillin clavulanate versus no treatment reduce the number of clinical cases progressing to sepsis?
  13. Answer me: In dogs with gingivitis does daily brushing with human (gingivitis specific) toothpaste, compared to regular canine toothpaste, reduce clinical signs?
  14. Answer me: In dogs with arthritis which gives the greatest improvement in pain scores - controlled exercise OR weight loss OR low level ("cold") laser treatment?
  15. Being answered: In dogs with IBD-related diarrhoea is Budesonide more effective than prednisone in improving fecal score?
  16. Being answered: Do obese dogs make up a larger percentage of the veterinary caseload than lean dogs?
  17. Answer me: In dogs with acute tracheobronchitis does treatment with theophylline versus TMPS lead to a shorter time to cessation of coughing?
  18. Answer me: In canine fractures, is low level laser more effective than low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in improving radiographic bone healing time?
  19. Being answered: In dogs does feeding raw feed treats reduce or prevent Periodontal Disease
  20. Being answered: In adult dogs, does feeding a complete raw diet affect urine composition
  21. Being answered: In dogs with traumatic elbow luxation, does closed reduction and conservative management result in a better outcome than open reduction and surgical management?
  22. Being answered: Does teeth brushing and it's varying frequency reduce risk of periodontal disease in dogs?

Feline

  1. Being answered: In cats with CKD, does controlling renal hypertension with amlodipine compared to ACE inhibitors decrease renal mortality?
  2. Being answered: Are adult cats fed on dry maintenance diets less at risk of developing CKD compared to adult cats fed on wet maintenance diets?
  3. Being answered: In cats with idiopathic Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), is prednisolone more effective than NSAIDs in reducing clinical signs?
  4. Answer me: In adult cats, does a varied diet reduce the risk of developing a food intolerance/allergy, when compared to a consistent diet?
  5. Answer me: In cats, does a canned-food diet reduce the risk of developing a UTI, when compared to dry diets?
  6. Answer me: In cats, does obesity increase the risk of periodontal disease, in comparison to cats with a body condition score lower than 3?
  7. Answer me: In adult cats, does feeding grain free maintenance diet reduce the risk of obesity compared to feeding a maintenance diet containing grains?
  8. Answer me: Are adult cats fed on homemade diets less at risk of developing CKD compared to adult cats fed on commercial diets?
  9. Being answered: In cats with chin acne, are antibiotics superior to glucocorticoids in reducing clinical signs?
  10. Answer me: In cats older than 6, does onset obesity affect mortality, when compared to cats with a body condition score lower than 5?
  11. Answer me: In cats with renal hyperparathyroidism, does the use of calcitriol improve renal mortality, in comparison to dietary modification alone?
  12. Answer me: Are hand-reared kittens more likely to develop gastrointestinal problems than normally weaned kittens?
  13. Answer me: In obese cats, does feeding grain free diets help in reducing the body weight compared to feeding "weight reduction specific" diets containing grains?
  14. Being answered: In clinically hyperthyroid cats, is I-131 treatment superior to unilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy in normalising serum T4 level?
  15. Answer me: In cats under 10 years old, does the presence of arthritis affect body condition score, when compared to non-arthritic cats?
  16. Answer me: In adult cats, does feeding a homemade balanced diet improve the stool quality compared to feeding a commercial maintenance diet?
  17. Answer me: In cats with self-barbering, does hypoallergenic feeding improve clinical signs (measured through skin examination), in comparison to normal feeding?
  18. Answer me: In cats with chin acne, is topical benzoyl effective at reducing clinical signs, in comparison to no drug intervention?
  19. Answer me: In cats with chin acne, are topical antibiotics superior to systemic antibiotics in reducing clinical signs?
  20. Answer me: In cats with chin acne, are topical glucocorticoids superior to systemic glucocorticoids in reducing clinical signs?
  21. Answer me: In cats, does chronic self-barbering increase the incidence of atopic dermatitis, in comparison to cats with a healthy coat?

 Vet Nurse Knowledge Group PICOs

  1. Being answered: In rabbits displaying signs of anxiety/fear does the use of mirrors compared to no mirrors reduce the signs of anxiety/fear
  2. Being answered: In anxious dogs does the use of pressure vests compared to no pressure vests reduce the signs of anxiety/fear?
  3. Being answered: In patients undergoing catheter placement does the use of chlorhexidine and alcohol have greater antimicrobial action than alcohol alone?
  4. Being answered: In birthing bitches undergoing a caesarean does premedication with methadone compared to post procedural analgesic negatively affect suckling behaviour?
  5. Being answered: During venous catheter placement preparation, does the use of reusable devices compared to disposable devices for applying antiseptic agents reduce patient catheter site infection?
  6. Being answered: In post-operative patients does the use of cold laser therapy compared to not using any therapy reduce the healing time of the wound?
  7. Being answered: In patients undergoing surgical preparation is the friction (back and forth method) compared to using concentric circles more effective in reducing infection (reduce CFU)?
  8. Being answered: Are dogs with hairy ear canals compared to non hairy ear canals more likely to suffer from otitis externa?

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