https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/issue/feed Veterinary Evidence 2022-06-29T19:34:15+01:00 Jennifer Morris editor@veterinaryevidence.org Open Journal Systems Veterinary Evidence is an online only, open access, peer-reviewed journal owned and published by RCVS Knowledge. It publishes content relating to evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) and its application in veterinary practice to enhance the quality of care provided to patients. https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/573 Does treatment with clomipramine reduce cat psychogenic alopecia? 2022-06-29T19:34:15+01:00 Anne-Claude Griesser ac.griesser@bluewin.ch <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In cats with psychogenic alopecia, is overgrooming reduced by the use of clomipramine compared to untreated cats?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>One pseudo-randomised controlled study</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Effect of clomipramine using owner report of number, intensity, and / or duration of grooming episodes, owner reported clinical improvement, and veterinary measured alopecia, extent of tissue damage, and hair regrowth</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The only controlled study found no evidence that clomipramine alone is effective in reducing grooming episodes, alopecia, or improved hair regrowth. Further&nbsp;research with randomised, double blind controlled trials and limitation of confounding factors is required to determine the efficacy of clomipramine alone or in addition to behavioural / environmental therapies</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-06-29T19:28:34+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anne-Claude Griesser https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/626 Erratum to: Should we prescribe oral metronidazole or probiotics for acute gastroenteritis in dogs? 2022-06-28T13:59:15+01:00 Emily Moore moor1662@umn.edu Wanda J Gordon-Evans wgordone@umn.edu <p>The original version of the article has been corrected, please see the full text for details of the correction.</p> 2022-06-28T13:56:50+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Emily Moore, Wanda J Gordon-Evans https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/569 In dogs with atopic skin disease, is lokivetmab more effective than oclacitinib in reducing the score of a recognised scoring system? 2022-06-22T10:01:40+01:00 Bonnie Yuan Tone Cheung bytc2@cam.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with atopic skin disease, is lokivetmab more effective than oclacitinib in reducing the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesion Index score (or some other recognised scoring system)?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>One randomised controlled trial and one before and after study were critically appraised</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>One randomised controlled trial studied the effects of lokivetmab and oclacitinib and found that both drugs were similar in reducing the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesion Index (CADESI-03) score.</p> <p>An additional study was evaluated but had non-standardised data as it was a before-and-after study on use of lokivetmab. The paper noted that dogs’ response to oclacitinib can be used to predict how well these dogs respond to lokivetmab. This study also reported a reduction in Pruritus Visual Analog Scale (PVAS) score between before and after lokivetmab administration</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>In view of the strength of evidence and outcomes from the studies, there is insufficient quality of evidence to answer the PICO question and so further comparative study is required</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-06-22T09:57:36+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bonnie Yuan Tone Cheung https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/627 Erratum to: Clinical audit of POM-V / POM prescriptions by remote consultation via a veterinary video telemedicine smartphone application 2022-06-20T10:15:27+01:00 Sheila Smith sheila.smith@vet-ai.com Tamsin Day tamsin.day@vet-ai.com Samantha Webster samantha.webster@vet-ai.com Sam Davies sam.davies@vet-ai.com Trevor Hardcastle th@vet-ai.com Adele Williams adele.williams@vet-ai.com <p>The original version of the article has been corrected, please see the full text for details of the correction.</p> 2022-06-20T10:00:55+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sheila Smith, Tamsin Day, Samantha Webster, Sam Davies, Trevor Hardcastle, Adele Williams https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/502 Comparing delayed versus on-arrival administration of a modified live viral vaccine in feedlot cattle 2022-06-15T09:23:00+01:00 Ashlee Ambs ashleemadams101@gmail.com Heather Moberly hmoberly@library.tamu.edu Sarah Capik sarah.capik@ag.tamu.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In auction market calves at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD), does delayed (14–30 days) vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV) for viral respiratory pathogens versus administration of MLV on-arrival (within 24 hours of arrival) to the feedlot, result in a decreased percentage of calves with BRD morbidity diagnosed based on visual signs and rectal temperature &gt;40 degrees Celsius?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Two papers were critically reviewed. Both are randomised complete block designs</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Delaying administration of a modified live respiratory vaccine to feedlot cattle may result in lower BRD retreatments</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>In feedlot calves, delaying modified live vaccine administration for viral respiratory pathogens may result in lower BRD retreatment rates than cattle receiving the vaccine on arrival to the feedlot. Significant statistical data from one study supported this conclusion while another showed numerically less retreatments in calves vaccinated on arrival versus delayed vaccination</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-06-15T09:15:46+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ashlee Ambs, Heather Moberly, Sarah Capik https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/553 Clinical audit of POM-V / POM prescriptions by remote consultation via a veterinary video telemedicine smartphone application 2022-06-20T10:13:38+01:00 Sheila Mary Smith sheila.smith@vet-ai.com Tamsin Day tamsin.day@vet-ai.com Samantha Georgina Webster samantha.webster@vet-ai.com Sam Davies sam.davies@vet-ai.com Trevor Peter Hardcastle th@vet-ai.com Adele Williams adele.williams@vet-ai.com <p><strong>There is an erratum to this paper published in&nbsp;<em>Veterinary Evidence</em> Vol 7, Issue 2 (2022): <a href="https://doi.org/10.18849/ve.v7i2.627" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.18849/VE.V7I2.627</a></strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess outcomes of a limited period (7 months) of remote video consultation with prescribing of prescription-only (POM) or prescription-only-veterinary (POM-V) medications by Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) registered veterinary surgeons to UK clients via a veterinary telemedicine smartphone application.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Objective evidence is needed to inform the veterinary profession on the impact that remote prescribing, without physical examination in person, has on animal health and welfare. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the RCVS allowed remote prescribing temporarily.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Clinical records from all veterinary video consultations from 1 April–31 October 2020 were reviewed. Details were assessed pertaining to: signalment, body system / disease categories managed, referrals into practice, medication classes prescribed and outcomes following POM-V / POM medications. Records of adverse events and antimicrobial prescribing were reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 16.6% (3,541/21,383) of video consults had a POM-V / POM prescribed; with a (mild) adverse event rate of 0.8% (30/3541). Antibacterials were prescribed in 5.88% of all consultations (1,258/21,383), 99.3% (1249/1258) being first line. Follow-up on prescribing was available in 67.7% (2,399/3541) of cases. 89% (2135/2399) of all known treatment outcomes were complete or had an expected response to treatment. Dermatological disease was the most common body system / disease category seen and prescribed for.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Low prescribing rates (including antibacterials) were recorded, treatments were efficacious and no harm was done by prescribing remotely via a veterinary video consult app.</p> <p><strong>Application:</strong> Veterinary surgeons and governing bodies are invited to use the information provided in this clinical audit to inform decisions on the suitability of remote consultations and prescribing in veterinary medicine.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-06-08T14:36:41+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sheila Mary Smith , Tamsin Day, Samantha Georgina Webster , Sam Davies, Trevor Peter Hardcastle, Adele Williams https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/588 Erratum to: In horses undergoing volatile anaesthesia, does intraoperative alpha-2-agonist infusion improve recovery? 2022-05-31T10:27:02+01:00 Alison Bennell bennell@liverpool.ac.uk <p>The original version of the article has been corrected, please see the full text for details of the correction.</p> 2022-05-31T10:17:05+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jennifer Morris https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/393 Should we prescribe oral metronidazole or probiotics for acute gastroenteritis in dogs? 2022-06-28T14:06:03+01:00 Emily Moore moor1662@umn.edu Wanda Gordon-Evans wgordone@umn.edu <p><strong>There is an erratum to this paper published in&nbsp;<em>Veterinary Evidence</em>&nbsp;Vol 7, Issue 2 (2022):&nbsp;<span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://doi.org/10.18849/ve.v7i2.626" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.18849/VE.V7I2.626</a></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with acute gastroenteritis, is metronidazole faster, slower, or comparable in resolving clinical signs when compared to probiotic administration?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Five studies total, all were blinded, randomised controlled trials</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>The use of probiotics as a treatment for acute, uncomplicated diarrhoea in dogs may improve clinical signs faster when compared to a placebo, but showed no difference when compared directly to metronidazole. Metronidazole, when compared to a placebo, produced mixed results with one study finding that treatment with metronidazole did significantly reduce the time to resolution of diarrhoea, while another study found the difference with placebo was not significant</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Based on the evidence evaluated, the use of oral metronidazole will not decrease time to resolution of clinical signs in cases of acute, uncomplicated diarrhoea in dogs when compared to probiotic administration and thus should not be a first-line treatment in such cases</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-05-18T14:26:51+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Emily Moore, Wanda Gordon-Evans https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/450 Propofol-diazepam or propofol-midazolam co-induction in healthy dogs: effects on propofol dosages, cardiovascular and respiratory events 2022-05-20T10:07:12+01:00 Joshua Coward jcow6072@uni.sydney.edu.au Mathieu Raillard mathieu_raillard@yahoo.it <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In healthy dogs, does the use of diazepam or midazolam administered in co-induction with propofol result in a reduction in the dose of propofol required to induce anaesthesia and a decrease in adverse cardiovascular and respiratory events?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Eight papers were critically reviewed. A total of six manuscripts were prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical studies. One trial was prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical with a Latin square, incomplete design. One study was retrospective, randomised, blinded, crossover, experimental</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Variables assessed in this Knowledge Summary included: propofol dose required to induce anaesthesia (considering successful orotracheal intubation as an end point), changes in cardiovascular variables (heart rate, systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure) and changes in respiratory variables (development of apnoea, changes in respiratory rates)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>In healthy dogs, using propofol-diazepam or propofol-midazolam co-induction resulted in a reduction in propofol dose required to induce anaesthesia in some trials only. Midazolam appeared more effective than diazepam in this context. The dosages, timing and sequence of drug administration seemed relevant. No evidence suggested that using propofol-diazepam or propofol-midazolam co-induction resulted in a reduction of adverse cardiovascular or respiratory events. In addition, although this was out of the scope of the PICO question addressed here, adverse events (e.g. excitement, poorer quality of induction) were reported in several studies when diazepam or midazolam were used in co-induction</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-05-04T09:32:22+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Joshua Coward, Mathieu Raillard https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/512 Practice what you preach: Importance of veterinarian involvement in zoonotic disease prevention – A Michigan focus 2022-04-27T10:02:25+01:00 Stephanie Baiyasi stephaniebaiyasi@yahoo.com Rubén Juárez juarerub@gmail.com Jodi Brookins-Fisher fishe1jb@cmich.edu Jeff Inungu inung1j@cmich.edu Thomas Gehring gehri1tm@cmich.edu Zigmond Kozicki zigpsych@sbcglobal.net <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Determine the extent to which practicing veterinarians in Michigan, USA engaged in commonly recommended practices for the prevention of zoonotic diseases (ZDs).</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Follow-up to Lipton et al. (2008) Washington State study.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Online survey link was emailed February 2020 to 3,410 Michigan licensed veterinarians practicing clinical medicine with emails on file with Michigan Licensing and Regulatory Affairs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 402 veterinarians responded. A high proportion (161/214 [75%]) of respondents agreed it was very important for veterinarians to advise clients about the potential for ZD, yet only 34% (74/215) reported they had initiated discussions about ZDs with clients on a daily basis, although 64% (137/214) indicated they had client educational materials on ZDs available in their practices. Nearly 62% (47/76) of veterinarians who obtained their degree after 2010 were likely to eat / drink in animal handling areas as compared to only 33% (18/54) of those who graduated before 1989. Over 30% of respondents (64/210) indicated there were no written infection control guidelines for staff members in the practice, and 28% (60/214) reported having been infected with a ZD in practice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Veterinarians appreciate their important role in ZD prevention and welcome increased communication between human and veterinary medicine plus assistance from public health agencies regarding ZD prevention. Communication / coordination / collaboration among human medicine / animal medicine / environmental health (i.e., One Health) is necessary to protect the public’s health from zoonoses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-04-27T09:46:21+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Stephanie Baiyasi, Rubén Juárez, Jodi Brookins-Fisher, Jeff Inungu, Thomas Gehring, Zigmond Kozicki https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/509 A comparison of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin in dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts 2022-06-09T15:17:09+01:00 Kathryn Kesler keslerka@msu.edu Grace Longcore ertlegra@msu.edu Alex Russell russe484@msu.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In adult dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts, does treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) compared to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) result in a more rapid return to cyclicity?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>The publications consisted of six non-blinded randomised comparative or controlled trials</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Recovery time, clinical cure, and interval to conception were consistently evaluated. Many studies also evaluated other fertility parameters such as first estrus or first treatment conception, overall pregnancy and conception risks, and breedings per conception</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>At this time, there is insufficient evidence to suggest whether GnRH or hCG is more efficacious for treating ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cattle. Ultimately, further research is essential to elucidate which treatment results in a more rapid return to cyclicity for dairy cattle afflicted with cystic ovarian follicles</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-04-21T09:42:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kathryn Kesler, Grace Longcore, Alex Russell https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/543 Personal health and nutrition information-seeking attitudes and behaviours of first year Canadian and United States veterinary students 2022-04-13T12:49:19+01:00 Shelby Nielson snielson@uoguelph.ca May Kamleh may.kamleh@gmail.com Peter Conlon pconlon@ovc.uoguelph.ca Jennifer McWhirter j.mcwhirter@uoguelph.ca Elizabeth Stone estone@uoguelph.ca Deep Khosa dkhosa@uoguelph.ca <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the primary sources of information first year Canadian and US veterinary students relied on for their personal health and nutrition information, and to explore their attitudes towards, and perceptions of, health information resources.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Though the animal health information-seeking behaviours (HISB) of veterinary students have been explored, research regarding personal HISB of this professional student population is limited.</p> <p><strong>Evidentiary value:</strong> Participants were first year veterinary students (n=322) at the five Canadian veterinary schools and five randomly selected US veterinary schools. An online questionnaire was used to gather students’ demographic information, sources of health and nutrition information, and information-seeking attitudes and perceptions. This study may impact practice at the institutional level for veterinary educators.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>STATA 15.1<sup>©</sup> was used for quantitative analysis; involving multivariate logistic regression models, univariate analyses, and measures of frequency.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results indicated high reliance on the Internet for personal health 213/322 (66%) and nutrition 196/322 (61%) information. While respondents revealed high trust levels in dietary recommendations from family doctors, 132/322 (41%) of students revealed their doctor did not provide any information on healthy diets. Students who reported the use of peer-reviewed journal articles for personal nutrition information were at greater odds of having confidence in knowing where to find nutrition information (Odds Ratio [OR] = 6.61, p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Participating students reported a high reliance on the Internet search engine Google, and a general lack of guidance from medical professionals regarding general health needs.</p> <p><strong>Application:</strong> Veterinary schools should consider this information to enhance student information literacy skills, particularly to facilitate personal HISB, and consequently help in management of personal health throughout the growing demands of the programme.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-04-13T10:09:42+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shelby Nielson, May Kamleh, Peter Conlon, Jennifer McWhirter, Elizabeth Stone, Deep Khosa https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/491 In horses with secondary sinusitis caused by dental disease, is computed tomography more accurate than radiography for the identification of apical dental pathology? 2022-04-07T15:09:18+01:00 Rebecca Gill-Parsons svyrg6@nottingham.ac.uk Emma Shipman svzevm@exmail.nottingham.ac.uk Kirstie Pickles svzkp@exmail.nottingham.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In adult horses with secondary sinusitis caused by dental disease, is computed tomography more accurate than radiography for the identification of apical dental pathology?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Diagnosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>The literature search identified four papers that were critically reviewed. The publications consist of two retrospective case-controlled studies, one clinical study and one descriptive study</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Four studies reported the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of apical dental pathology in horses presented for evaluation of clinical signs of sinus disease with histopathological evidence of apical dental pathology. All studies reported the radiographic changes present in these horses or used absence of definitive radiographic changes consistent with apical dental disease as a reason to undertake further CT evaluation. All four papers found that CT identified teeth with apical pathology that radiography had not</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>CT is more accurate than radiography for the diagnosis of equine maxillary apical dental pathology; however, clear guidelines on the CT changes associated with apical dental pathology are required. Loss of the lamina dura, infundibular changes or pulpal gas as singular findings on CT imaging can be seen in teeth with no underlying histopathological evidence of apical disease, and in maxillary teeth imaged in horses without clinical signs of maxillary cheek tooth pathology</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-04-07T15:00:58+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rebecca Gill-Parsons, Emma Shipman, Kirstie Pickles https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/438 In dogs with aural haematoma does draining and injecting corticosteroids versus drainage alone reduce the risk of recurrence? 2022-03-31T09:44:36+01:00 Rachel Church rachelc861@hotmail.co.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with aural haematomas does draining and injecting corticosteroids versus drainage alone reduce the risk of recurrence?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Three papers were critically reviewed, a retrospective multi-centre cohort study, a randomised case control trial and an observational survey</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Drainage alone at daily or weekly frequency consistently resulted in aural haematoma (AH) recurrence and lack of resolution. Corticosteroid instillation alongside drainage reduced the risk of rapid recurrence for AHs, across both the cohort and the case control studies, provided drainage was frequent</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The strength of evidence for local steroid instillation was weak given the type of studies reviewed, alongside small sample sizes and variations in treatment protocol. However, consistently drainage alone appears an insufficient means of addressing AHs in dogs.</p> <p>In cases where frequent drainage was the chosen treatment option, the addition of local corticosteroid application appeared to improve the outcome compared to drainage alone.</p> <p>However, as systemic treatment was often employed alongside local corticosteroid instillation, success cannot necessarily be attributed solely to local treatment. Larger, randomised control trials would be required to assess the effect of each individual intervention providing clearer evidence for the most effective medical protocol for treating aural haematomas in dogs</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-03-31T09:38:42+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rachel Church https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/381 What prognostic information does flow cytometry provide in canine B-cell lymphoma? 2022-03-25T09:27:20+00:00 Benjamin Haythornthwaite bhaythornthwaite@hotmail.co.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with B-cell lymphoma, does the use of flow cytometry provide useful prognostic information?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Prognosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Twelve papers were critically reviewed. All were cohort studies</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>There are multiple potential prognostic indicators in canine B-cell lymphoma that flow cytometry can be used to evaluate, including lymphoma stage, survival time and time to progression. There is promising evidence for the use of percentage expression of CD25 and Ki67 cellular markers in providing prognostic information in canine B-cell lymphoma and these should be assessed further in clinical practice. Flow cytometry has also been shown to be useful in assessing bone marrow infiltration and providing prognostic information relating to this. There is also evidence for the prognostic value of measuring expression of class II MHC and CTLA-4 cellular markers, peripheral lymphocyte / monocyte ratio, nodal regulatory T-cell populations and the ratio between T and B lymphocytes in extranodal locations. Peripheral regulatory T-cell populations and cellular size were also assessed, however further investigations are required before confirming their prognostic value</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Flow cytometric analysis offers useful measures of prognosis in canine B-cell lymphoma, although further validation is required before introducing their routine use. Percentage expression of CD25 and Ki67 cellular markers from lymph node aspirates of dogs with B-cell lymphoma appear to be promising prognostic indicators in clinical investigations, however this needs to be translated into clinical practice. While there is evidence for the prognostic value of bone marrow infiltration measured flow cytometrically, expression of class II MHC and CTLA-4, peripheral lymphocyte / monocyte ratio, nodal regulatory T-cell populations and the ratio between T and B lymphocytes in extranodal locations, these need to be further investigated before introducing into clinical practice. As new antibodies against cellular targets in dogs become available, it is likely that flow cytometry will become even more useful in providing prognostic information</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-03-24T11:08:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Benjamin Haythornthwaite https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/455 The effectiveness of oxytetracycline in the treatment of calves with contracted flexor tendons 2022-03-17T09:37:59+00:00 Antonia Leech antonialeech@gmail.com <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In neonatal calves with contracted flexor tendons is the use of a 3 day course of oxytetracycline in conjunction with other treatments more effective in returning the hoof to normal full weight bearing on both the toe and heel compared to no oxytetracycline?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Three papers were critically reviewed. One randomised controlled study, one case series and one case study</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Oxytetracycline as a treatment for contracted flexor tendons in calves was found to be slightly more effective in returning the hoof to normal weight bearing compared to no oxytetracycline. In contrast, oxytetracycline infusions for the treatment of contracted flexor tendons in calves do not have an influence on weight bearing and have no significant clinical effect</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There was limited confidence that the estimated effect reported by the studies were close to the true effect, this is due to the studies having a number of limitations as well as the case series / study having limited evidentiary power. There is currently insufficient evidence from the literature to support or reject the use of oxytetracycline in the treatment of contracted flexor tendons in calves. Further studies, with higher strengths of evidence, are required to provide conclusive evidence</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-03-17T09:34:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Antonia Leech https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/508 Does the extent of the surgical margin affect the likelihood of local recurrence in Patnaik grade I or II cutaneous mast cell tumours? 2022-03-10T11:22:05+00:00 Christos Dorlis chrisdorlis@gmail.com <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Does the extent of the surgical margin affect the likelihood of local recurrence in Patnaik grade I or II cutaneous mast cell tumours?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Eight papers were critically reviewed. Five were retrospective case series, two prospective clinical trials, and one prospective case series</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Low</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Sequin et al. (2001) reported a local recurrence rate of 5%, but this study is 20 years old. In the studies of Simpson et al. (2004), Fulcher et al. (2006), Pratschke et al. (2013), Saunders et al. (2020), and Itoh et al. (2021), no local recurrence was observed in grade I and II mast cell tumours, while in the Milovancev et al. (2019) study, only 1/30 low-grade cutaneous mast cell tumors developed local recurrence. Therefore, there is some evidence that conservative surgical excision is sufficient to achieve local control with low recurrence rates</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is increasing evidence in the literature for conservative surgical excision of grade I and II MCTs, but because the quality of evidence is low, no clear recommendations can be made. Further studies are needed to determine recommendations for surgical excision of cutaneous MCTs based on the biological characteristics of the tumour and the completeness of histologic margins</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-03-10T11:17:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Christos Dorlis https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/503 Delayed versus on arrival modified live viral vaccination in stocker cattle on bovine respiratory disease 2022-03-09T16:50:41+00:00 Ashlee Ambs ashleeambs20@gmail.com Heather Moberly hmoberly@library.tamu.edu Sarah Capik sarah.capik@ag.tamu.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In auction market calves at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD), does delayed (14–30 days) vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV) for viral respiratory pathogens versus administration of MLV on arrival (within 24 hours of arrival) to the stocker operation, result in less calves with BRD morbidity diagnosed based on visual signs and rectal temperature &gt;40°C, or less calves with BRD mortality?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Four papers were critically reviewed. All were randomised complete block designs</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>In stocker calves, delaying administration of a MLV for respiratory viruses may result in numerically lower initial BRD morbidity rates, while giving at arrival may result in numerically lower BRD retreatments. One study shows statistically lower cases of BRD morbidity after the third antimicrobial treatment in cattle vaccinated on arrival with both a clostridial and MLV for respiratory viruses compared to cattle vaccinated on arrival with clostridial vaccine and delayed MLV for respiratory viruses. No conclusion about mortality can be drawn due to inconsistent numerical conclusions between studies</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Due to conflicting evidence and a general lack of statistically significant differences in morbidity and mortality outcomes, a definite answer regarding the impact of delayed MLV respiratory vaccination in stocker calves cannot be made</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-03-04T09:33:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ashlee Ambs , Sarah Capik, Heather Moberly https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/382 Can measurement of glucose levels in blood and peritoneal fluid be used to diagnose septic peritonitis in dogs? 2022-03-02T09:42:43+00:00 Nicole D'Mello nicoledmello@hotmail.com <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Can the measurement of blood and peritoneal fluid effusion glucose levels be used to accurately diagnose septic peritonitis in dogs when compared to cytology and bacterial culture?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Diagnosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Three papers were critically reviewed, all of which were diagnostic test evaluation studies</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Glucose measurements can be used to diagnose septic peritonitis when the blood plasma glucose level is &gt;2.1 mmol/L higher than that of the peritoneal fluid glucose when using a veterinary point of care (POC) glucometer. If using a biochemistry analyser, a whole blood glucose &gt;1.1 mmol/L higher than that of the peritoneal fluid can be used to diagnose septic peritonitis. This is only relevant when the peritoneal fluid is collected by abdominocentesis and not in a postoperative period</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>At present, there is moderate evidence that glucose measurements are useful as a patient side test for the diagnosis of septic peritonitis and are especially useful in cases where intracellular bacteria cannot be identified on cytology. However, despite the so far promising accuracy results, the cut-offs reported are quite variable and overall, there is not a single diagnostic test that is 100% sensitive and specific in repeated studies. Therefore, the results of the glucose measurements should be evaluated alongside other biomarker testing, imaging modalities and the clinical presentation of the patient. Glucose measurements cannot currently replace culture / sensitivity and cytology as the gold standard for the diagnosis of septic peritonitis</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-03-02T09:37:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nicole D'Mello https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/444 Borrelia burgdorferi exposure in coyotes: an indicator of B. burgdorferi levels in urban versus rural environments 2022-02-16T15:49:08+00:00 Laura Shultz lcshultz@ucdavis.edu Erik Fausak edfausak@ucdavis.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Do wild coyotes in the US that are in an urban habitat compared to a rural habitat have a higher prevalence of <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em> seroconversion?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Prevalence</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Two papers, both utilising a cross-sectional study design</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Zero</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>The relevant studies provide very limited to no evidence towards answering this PICO question. In one, while the absolute percentage of <em>Borrelia</em>-antibody-positive canines (including dogs in addition to coyotes) is higher in metropolitan areas, the effect was not found to be statistically significant, possibly due to their small sample sizes. In the second study, prevalence of antibodies against <em>Borrelia</em> was compared between different rural habitats, but no urban coyotes were tested as a comparison and thus the PICO question cannot be evaluated</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is a knowledge gap concerning the prevalence of <em>Borrelia</em> in coyotes and how it differs between urban and rural environments. Wild coyotes could be used as a sentinel species of Lyme disease activity and to assess potential for domestic pet and human infections, which would inform clinical differential diagnoses as well as testing and vaccination recommendations. More studies are needed before this PICO question can be answered in a confident manner</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-02-16T15:44:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laura Shultz, Erik Fausak