https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/issue/feed Veterinary Evidence 2022-01-12T12:47:13+00:00 Jennifer Morris editor@veterinaryevidence.org Open Journal Systems Veterinary Evidence is an online only, open access, peer-reviewed journal owned and published by RCVS Knowledge. It publishes content relating to evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) and its application in veterinary practice to enhance the quality of care provided to patients. https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/527 Comparison of the effect of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) as an adjunct to a non-steroidal inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy vs NSAID therapy alone, for dogs with osteoarthritis 2022-01-12T12:47:13+00:00 Lok Yee Stephanie Wong lwon6099@uni.sydney.edu.au Merran Govendir merran.govendir@sydney.edu.au <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Does treatment with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with supplementation of marine-derived&nbsp; omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) compared to the NSAID alone, result in an increased ability to exert force by the osteoarthritic limb(s) of dogs or alleviate other measures of osteoarthritis?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Two prospective, block-randomised, clinical trials</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>None</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Kwananocha et al. (2016) investigated administration of carprofen supplemented with marine-derived n-3 FAs, to carprofen alone, administered over 4 weeks. Vijarnsorn et al. (2019) investigated administration of firocoxib supplemented with n-3FA, to firocoxib alone, for 4 weeks.&nbsp; There were no statistical differences between treatment groups at week 2 and week 4 post-treatment for either study. Both studies also reported orthopaedic assessment score (OAS) based on scoring the extent of patient lameness and pain in the affected joint. There were no statistical changes in OASs between treatment groups at week 2 or week 4 post-treatment for either study</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is no evidence that marine-derived n-3 FAs provide additional benefit when used as adjunctive agents with NSAIDs for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-01-12T12:38:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lok Yee Stephanie Wong, Merran Govendir https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/388 Are dogs with hip dysplasia in less pain after total hip replacement than femoral head ostectomy? 2022-01-07T15:50:04+00:00 Erica Rehnblom rehnb010@umn.edu Wanda J. Gordon-Evans wgordone@umn.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In large breed juvenile dogs with hip dysplasia and radiographic bilateral osteoarthritis, is a total hip replacement superior/inferior/or equivalent to bilateral femoral head ostectomy at reducing the severity of long-term hip pain?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Twelve papers were critically appraised. One paper was a systematic review. Six papers were prospective case series. Five papers were retrospective case series</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Besides one systematic review, there are no other studies available that directly compare pain reduction with total hip replacement and femoral head ostectomy for the treatment of hip dysplasia in large breed juvenile dogs with radiographic evidence of secondary osteoarthritis. In one study, 12/12 (100%)of owners that responded to an owner outcome questionnaire reported no hip pain with femoral head and neck ostectomy. In this study, owners assessed pain based on activity level of the dog (running, playing, jumping, using stairs normally), gait abnormalities (only when running or after strenuous exercise), and duration of postoperative medications. In eight studies, 91–100% of cases had no hip pain with total hip replacement reported via clinical examination and/or owner outcome questionnaire</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is evidence suggesting that both total hip replacement and femoral head ostectomy may be capable of reducing long-term pain as a result of osteoarthritis, secondary to hip dysplasia, however, based on the current literature, it is challenging to say whether total hip replacement is superior to femoral head and neck ostectomy at reducing long-term hip pain. It is important to recognise that other factors considered as outcomes (i.e. range of motion, ground reaction forces, force-plate analysis, etc.) may contribute to differing outcomes overall for total hip replacement vs femoral head ostectomy, but this paper focused specifically on pain. While there is a systematic review that provides evidence supporting that total hip replacement is superior at returning dogs to normal function, evaluating return to normal function was not the focus of this Knowledge Summary</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2022-01-07T15:43:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Erica Rehnblom, Wanda J. Gordon-Evans https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/390 Mortality rate comparison of enterotomy and resection and anastomosis (enterectomy) in dogs with foreign-body obstructions 2021-12-30T12:04:19+00:00 Hillary Mikulak MIKUL073@umn.edu Wanda J. Gordon-Evans wgordone@umn.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with gastrointestinal foreign-body obstruction undergoing surgical correction, is the mortality rate in the perioperative period for those receiving resection and anastomosis higher, lower, or equivalent to those receiving an enterotomy?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Outcome</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Four retrospective studies were reviewed</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>It would appear that the mortality rate for resection and anastomosis for the purpose of foreign-body removal is higher than that of enterotomies performed for the same reason</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is insufficient evidence directly comparing enterotomies with resection and anastomoses in foreign-body obstructions to definitively state that the mortality rate is higher among resection and anastomosis procedures</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-30T12:00:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hillary Mikulak, Wanda J. Gordon-Evans https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/447 Among homeless individuals, does owning a pet improve their mental health? 2021-12-28T08:57:03+00:00 Kimberly Conway kconway@ucdavis.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Among homeless individuals, does owning a pet improve their mental health?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Qualitative assessment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Fifteen (eight qualitative assessments, two cross-sectional quantitative studies, three qualitative/cross-sectional studies, and two scoping/systematic reviews)</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Homeless individuals who own pets reported improvement in their mental health status by having fewer symptoms of depression, reduced feelings of loneliness, reduced stress, increased feelings of happiness, and decreased intentions of suicide, all as a result of owning a pet.</p> <p>However, homeless individuals who own pets may suffer a decrease in mental health due to the loss or anticipated loss of their pet</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>It is concluded among qualitative and cross-sectional studies that there are clearly multiple benefits to mental health associated with pet ownership among homeless individuals. However, the lack of quantitative, longitudinal, and/or experimental studies in this topic prevents a causative relationship from being established and caution should be exercised when interpreting the results as pet ownership causing an improvement in mental health</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-28T08:51:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kimberly Conway https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/443 Current evidence supporting simultaneous prophylactic gastropexy in canine patients undergoing complete splenectomy 2021-12-24T10:10:03+00:00 Olivia Harris harr1474@umn.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs that have undergone a complete splenectomy, does performing a concurrent gastropexy decrease the risk of future gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) development when compared to not performing a concurrent gastropexy?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Risk</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Five papers were critically reviewed which included one retrospective case series, one retrospective case-control study, and three combined retrospective cohort and cross-sectional survey studies</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>In dogs that have had a complete splenectomy, there is no conclusive evidence that prophylactic gastropexy decreases the risk of lifetime GDV development</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Based on the limited information available, it is difficult to conclude if prophylactic gastropexy should be recommended routinely at the time of complete splenectomy</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-24T10:06:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Olivia Harris https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/445 The use of metronidazole in adult dogs with acute onset, uncomplicated, diarrhoea 2021-12-22T09:58:14+00:00 Emma Rogers-Smith emma.rogers-smith@vetspecialists.co.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In adult, non-geriatric, dogs with acute onset (&lt;7 days duration) uncomplicated diarrhoea does the addition of metronidazole to a supportive care protocol such as dietary modification or probiotics (excluding other antimicrobials) reduce the time to resolution of diarrhoea compared to supportive care protocols alone?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Four studies were included in this appraisal. Two prospective, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trials, one prospective treatment trial and one retrospective longitudinal observational study</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>One study found a shortened duration of clinical signs (by 1.5 days; p = 0.04) in the metronidazole treated group compared to control. However, a separate study found no significant difference between control and metronidazole groups in the regards to resolution of clinical signs.</p> <p>One study demonstrated a long standing (&gt;28 day) negative impact of metronidazole treatment on gut microbiome with no difference in time to resolution of clinical signs when compared with faecal matter transplant</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The current evidence for the superiority of metronidazole compared to supportive treatment alone is weak and at this time there is no evidence-based rationale for its use in cases of uncomplicated, acute, canine diarrhoea. Furthermore, the negative implications of metronidazole on the intestinal microbiome have been found to be long standing (&gt;28 days as a minimum) and should not be discounted by the prescribing clinician</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-22T09:51:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Emma Rogers-Smith https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/430 Exploring how veterinary professionals perceive and use grief support resources to support companion animal caregivers in Ontario, Canada 2021-12-17T09:31:49+00:00 Alisha Matte amatte@uoguelph.ca Deep Khosa dkhosa@uoguelph.ca Michael Meehan mmeehan@uoguelph.ca <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore veterinary professionals’ use and perceptions of grief resources and services to support companion animal caregivers following companion animal euthanasia.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The loss of a companion animal can be a source of great sorrow and grief. Like human loss, many companion animal caregivers may seek out and benefit from grief resources, of which veterinary professionals are often important providers. Yet, little is known about how, when or for what reasons veterinary professionals provide these resources.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A qualitative study consisting of group and individual interviews involving 38 veterinary professionals and staff from 10 veterinary hospitals in Ontario, Canada was conducted. Verbatim transcripts were evaluated using inductive thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results indicated that typically resources were only provided if a caregiver requested information, or when veterinary professionals recognised that the caregiver may benefit from these resources. To assess a caregiver’s need, participants reported considering their age, the strength of the human-animal bond, their previous and ongoing life circumstances, and their emotional state. Several barriers limiting veterinary professionals’ use of grief resources were also described including perceptions that few adequate resources existed and a lack of knowledge of existing or new resources.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Overall, findings suggest that there are substantial opportunities to improve and embed a provision of grief resources within the veterinary profession. There is a need to develop adequate resources to meet caregivers’ supportive needs and implement these resources within the greater veterinary profession.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-16T12:48:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alisha Matte, Deep Khosa, Michael Meehan https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/421 Can dog appeasing pheromone ameliorate stress behaviours associated with anxiety in mature domestic dogs? 2021-12-14T11:38:02+00:00 Chun Fung Wong cwon3805@uni.sydney.edu.au Merran Govendir merran.govendir@sydney.edu.au <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Does use of dog-appeasing pheromone reduce the frequency and/or severity of non-specific stress behaviours associated with anxiety in domestic dogs, older than 6 months, when compared with no treatment?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Eight controlled trials were appraised. Four were randomised and four were either non-randomised or did not clearly describe the method of allocating subjects into treatment groups.</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>There was no evidence that any dog appeasing pheromone (DAP) formulation (spray, diffuser, or collar) was superior. There was moderate evidence that DAP could reduce some behavioural manifestations of fear and/or anxiety stemming from thunderstorm noise and weak evidence that it could ameliorate some non-specific stress behaviours in hospitalised patients. In shelter dogs, there was mild evidence that DAP could reduce barking intensity and increase some behaviours associated with relaxation. When behavioural changes occurred, most were observed during exposure to DAP and there were minimal residual effects post-treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The evidence for using DAP to manage stress behaviours associated with anxiety in dogs over six months of age remains weak. Until there is a stronger evidentiary basis, clinicians should be aware that a true clinical benefit is undetermined. Nevertheless, DAP is unlikely to cause harm and may still provide some therapeutic benefit. Therefore, DAP may still be employed in a multimodal management plan for some behaviour cases and may exert a placebo effect. However, if an owner’s financial resources are restrictive, clinicians should not prioritise pheromone therapy at the omission of other therapies that have established clinical effects</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-14T11:18:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chun Fung Wong, Merran Govendir https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/515 Can IDEXX Angio Detect™ accurately detect canine Angiostrongylosis? 2021-12-10T12:07:06+00:00 Natashia Weir natashiaweir@btinternet.com Jo Ireland joanne.ireland@liverpool.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs, is IDEXX Angio Detect™ as accurate as Baermann coprology when diagnosing <em>Angiostrongylus vasorum</em> infection?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Diagnosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Eight papers were critically reviewed: three diagnostic accuracy studies, two cross-sectional studies (one of which also included a retrospective case series), one cohort study, one case-control study, and one case series</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Angio Detect™ (IDEXX) was shown to have low-moderate sensitivity and high specificity in comparison to Baermann coprology. Occasionally, false-negative results occurred with Angio Detect™ when compared to Baermann coprology. This was thought to be due to antigen-antibody complex formation. Positive Angio Detect™ assays were obtained in both symptomatic and asymptomatic canine patients. In an experimental setting, Angio Detect™ was shown to obtain a positive result five weeks post-inoculation</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is weak evidence supporting Angio Detect™ as a highly specific and moderately sensitive diagnostic test when compared to Baermann coprology</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-10T12:01:41+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Natashia Weir, Jo Ireland https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/480 Cryotherapy of the distal limbs: an effective treatment for equine laminitis following onset of lameness? 2021-12-09T10:13:31+00:00 Lucy Ryde lr00297@surrey.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In horses with acute laminitis, does cryotherapy of the distal limbs applied after onset of clinical signs lead to improved clinical outcomes compared to horses treated without cryotherapy?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Four papers were critically appraised; there were three randomised, controlled trials, and one retrospective cohort study.</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>There were reduced histological changes and lamellar injury in limbs treated with cryotherapy in the randomised controlled trials and reduced clinical severity of laminitis in horses treated with cryotherapy in the retrospective cohort study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>In horses with acute laminitis there is weak evidence to suggest that cryotherapy of the distal limbs is an effective treatment option when applied following onset of clinical signs. Further randomised, controlled trials should be performed to assess clinical outcomes of cryotherapy in order to draw definitive conclusions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-09T10:06:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lucy Ryde https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/400 Use of the feline interdigital semiochemical (FIS) to redirect unwanted scratching behaviour in cats 2021-12-03T12:42:40+00:00 Matt Goins 15200869@ucdconnect.ie <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Can the use of a synthetic feline interdigital semiochemical (FIS), with the provision of a scratching post, redirect unwanted scratching behaviour in cats better than provision of a scratching post alone?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Three studies were evaluated. One was a randomised blinded trial on a single group of subjects following a crossover repetition design (Cozzi et al., 2013), the second was an open, uncontrolled study (Beck et al., 2018), and the third was a randomised unblinded trial on a single group of subjects using a placebo (Zhang et al., 2019).</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>In two of the three studies where the FIS pheromone was applied to the scratching posts resulted in a statistically significant increase in the cats’ scratching behaviour compared to the control. The third study showed a result approaching statistical significance (p = 0.06).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Based on the assessed studies there is weak evidence that FIS used in conjunction with the provision of a scratching post is more successful in redirecting unwanted scratching behaviour than provision of a scratching post alone. However, further studies using larger and more representative cohorts are needed in order to confirm the accuracy of these results.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-03T12:38:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Matt Goins https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/384 Evaluating the reliability of computed tomography for the diagnosis of intervertebral disc extrusion in dogs 2021-12-01T12:34:01+00:00 Chloe Smith cs13407@my.bristol.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with an acute thoracolumbar myelopathy, is non-contrast computed tomography (CT) a reliable method for the diagnosis of intervertebral disc extrusion, compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Diagnosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Four papers were critically reviewed. Two were retrospective, cross-sectional studies, and two were prospective, observational cohort studies</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>The current literature suggests that CT is often sufficient for the diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion, with MRI superior to CT for lesion characterisation. Non-contrast CT is likely sufficient for the diagnosis and surgical planning for intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds. However, MRI is recommended for diagnosis and surgical planning of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in non-Dachshund breeds</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Computed tomography is often sufficient for the diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. However, MRI is superior to CT for lesion characterisation and it is therefore recommended to use MRI for cases requiring surgical planning. Computed tomography is likely sufficient for the diagnosis and surgical planning of intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds</p> <p>Regard for the reason of diagnostics performed (e.g. surgical planning) and the likelihood of other differential diagnoses (e.g. spinal neoplasms) should be taken before deciding to use one imaging modality over the other. Consideration into the risks associated with anaesthetising an animal with a spinal cord lesion, the ability of the practitioner to accurately localise the myelopathy and interpret the results, should be taken before pursuing diagnostics in these cases</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-12-01T12:29:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chloe Smith https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/476 Does occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia reduce the survival rate in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV)? 2021-11-25T16:37:19+00:00 Madeleine Thomson madeleine.thomson@ntlworld.com <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Does occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia reduce the survival rate in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV)?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Prognosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>The number and type of study designs that were critically appraised were three retrospective observational case-control studies (Brourman et al., 1996; Green et al., 2012; and Mackenzie et al., 2010) and one prospective, observational study (Aona et al., 2017)</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Critical evaluation and appraisal of the papers that met the inclusion criteria provided only weak evidence to support the clinical question. This is due to the lack of recent (within the last 5 years) and specific (do the presence of cardiac arrythmias affect mortality of dogs with GDV) studies conducted on the subject. Additionally, more in-depth statistical analysis (e.g. P values and confidence intervals (CI)) may also help to determine the strength of association between the presence of ventricular arrythmia and survival rates.</p> <p>However, there is room for further research to continue investigating the proposed hypothesis. Several of the evaluated studies were carried out more than 10 years before this Knowledge Summary was written, meaning that the knowledge and technology at the time may not be relevant to clinical practice today</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Green et al. (2012) concluded that ‘cardiac arrhythmia was not a prognostic indicator’ for GDV.</p> <p>Of the two papers (Mackenzie et al., 2010; and Brourman et al., 1996) that found a significant association between the development of cardiac arrhythmias (specifically, those of ventricular origin) and an increase in the mortality rates of dogs with GDV, one (Brourman et al., 1996) noted that a greater number of dogs that died prior to discharge were diagnosed with preoperative ventricular tachycardia, while the other (Mackenzie et al., 2010) found that the greatest mortality rate was among those dogs that developed postoperative ventricular tachycardia.</p> <p>The final study, Aona et al. (2017), was the only paper to categorise and grade the ventricular arrhythmias using previously published scales. It was discovered that increased levels of cTn1 (cardiac troponin 1) made a dog more likely to develop a higher grade of arrhythmia, however, no association was found between the type or grade of arrhythmia and patient mortality</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Taking into account the strength of evidence and the outcomes presented by the appraised studies the following conclusion has been drawn; although there is some evidence to suggest that ventricular tachycardia may be associated with an increase in mortality rates in patients with GDV, further research is required in order to make any further conclusions that may definitively answer the clinical question</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/mod/book/view.php?id=50" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-11-25T16:03:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Madeleine Thomson https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/389 In dogs with uncomplicated corneal ulcers, do antibacterial eye drops reduce the risk of infection? 2021-11-17T14:01:39+00:00 Sery Johnson joh10898@umn.edu Wanda Gordon-Evans wgordone@umn.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In dogs with uncomplicated corneal ulcers does treatment with prophylactic antibacterial eye drops reduce the risk of secondary infection when compared to no treatment with prophylactic antibacterial eye drops?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Zero</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Zero</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>None</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There were no published papers found to address the PICO</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-11-17T13:57:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sery Johnson, Wanda Gordon-Evans https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/494 In cats and dogs with traumatic diaphragmatic rupture, does surgical timing affect outcome? 2021-11-10T09:53:12+00:00 Alison Robertson alisonclrobertson@gmail.com <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In cats and dogs with traumatic diaphragmatic rupture undergoing herniorrhaphy does surgical timing affect outcome?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Prognosis</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Ten studies were critically appraised. All of these were retrospective case series</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Zero</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Overall, there is not sufficient evidence reporting if timing of surgical intervention has an effect on the mortality rate in dogs and cats with traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. Mortality rate was 6.8–50% in all cases</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is no statistically significant information available with only several retrospective studies published that are a low quality of evidence.&nbsp;Clinical practice can be reviewed based upon current evidence assessing timing of herniorrhaphy of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. However, there are no clear recommendations and future studies are warranted</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-11-10T09:47:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alison Robertson https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/532 Erratum to: Are glucocorticoids or NSAIDs more effective in reducing idiopathic feline urinary tract disease signs than no treatment or placebo? 2021-11-09T10:27:58+00:00 Lesca Sofyan lesca.sofyan.xx@hotmail.com <p><strong>The original article was published in Veterinary Evidence Vol 6, Issue 4 (2021): <a href="https://doi.org/10.18849/ve.v6i3.439" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://doi.org/10.18849/ve.v6i3.439</a></strong></p> 2021-11-09T10:12:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lesca Sofyan https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/469 Is soybean therapy better than ClinOleic for reducing recovery time in cats with permethrin toxicosis? 2021-11-04T10:10:26+00:00 Shadira Gordon dsgordon@ucdavis.edu <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>Is soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) therapy more effective than olive oil-based (ClinOleic IVLE therapy) for reducing time to recovery in cats with permethrin toxicosis?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Five case reports and one randomised clinical trial</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Soybean oil-based and ClinOleic IVLE therapies can be used safely as adjuvant treatments to reduce time to recovery in cats with permethrin intoxication. However, the evidence collected suggests that soybean oil-based IVLE therapy is better in reducing the recovery time after permethrin toxicosis as compared to ClinOleic IVLE therapy</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The overall findings showed that the average recovery time after soybean oil-based IVLE therapy across patients with permethrin intoxication was 8.5 hours and the average time to recovery after olive oil-based emulsions (ClinOleic therapy) was 39 hours. This may suggest that soybean oil-based formulations are a better option for reducing the recovery time in cats after permethrin toxicity. Dermal decontamination, supportive care, muscle relaxers, and anticonvulsant drugs are examples of recommended treatments before the administration of any intralipid therapies and must be used based on the clinical signs of each patient</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-11-04T10:05:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shadira Gordon https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/459 In ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism, does use of deslorelin acetate implants compared to adrenalectomy result in a superior prognosis? 2021-10-29T12:35:43+01:00 Megan Ballman mb00901@surrey.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism, does use of deslorelin acetate implants compared to adrenalectomy result in a superior prognosis?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>One study was reviewed, a retrospective cohort study that directly compared the outcomes of these treatments</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>The study found that in ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism, use of deslorelin acetate implants resulted in a longer average time to recurrence of clinical signs and a lower mortality rate than adrenalectomy. However, the strength of evidence for this study is weak and it has several design limitations</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>In view of the evidence, both deslorelin acetate implants and adrenalectomy are valid treatments for a ferret with hyperadrenocorticism, but it cannot be concluded based on the current literature that deslorelin acetate implants result in a superior prognosis</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-10-29T12:30:02+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Megan Ballman https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/451 For horses undergoing general anaesthesia, are rope recoveries or free recoveries better? 2021-10-01T10:02:08+01:00 Ffion Lloyd f.lloyd.1@research.gla.ac.uk Pamela Murison pamela.murison@glasgow.ac.uk <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In horses undergoing general anaesthesia, does assistance with ropes result in better recoveries when compared to no assistance (‘free’ recovery)?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Treatment</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>One randomised, non-blinded controlled trial and two retrospective cohort studies</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Weak</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>The three studies reviewed arrive at different conclusions regarding the utility of rope assistance in recovery from general anaesthesia in horses, but examine very different populations. The randomised controlled trial provides weak evidence that rope assistance can shorten recovery and improve recovery quality in healthy (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II) horses. One retrospective cohort study provides weak evidence that rope assistance confers a reduction in fatality in both healthy and sick horses. The other retrospective cohort study provides weak evidence that rope assistance confers no benefit to horses undergoing emergency colic surgery. Both assisted and unassisted groups in each study had fatalities and all studies reported complications related to the rope recovery system</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Insufficient evidence is available to permit a full recommendation regarding rope assistance during recovery from general anaesthesia in horses. Rope assistance may improve recovery time and quality in some horses. The decision to perform a rope-assisted recovery must be made considering individual patient, team and clinic factors. Rope assistance cannot prevent fatalities in recovery</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-09-30T14:25:48+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ffion Lloyd, Pamela Murison https://veterinaryevidence.org/index.php/ve/article/view/402 Do papillomaviruses cause feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma? 2021-09-16T16:41:02+01:00 Alexander Teh alexander.j.teh@gmail.com Mark Krockenberger mark.krockenberger@sydney.edu.au <p><strong>PICO question</strong></p> <p>In cats infected with papillomavirus, is the risk of developing&nbsp;feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma greater than cats that are not infected with papillomavirus?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p> <p><strong>Category of research question</strong></p> <p>Risk</p> <p><strong>The number and type of study designs reviewed</strong></p> <p>Eleven papers were critically reviewed, nine were case-control studies and two were experimental in vitro studies</p> <p><strong>Strength of evidence</strong></p> <p>Moderate</p> <p><strong>Outcomes reported</strong></p> <p>Infection of feline epithelial skin cells with <em>Felis catus </em>papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) is a risk factor for the development of feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis of FcaPV-2 infection and neoplastic transformation into malignant cells shares similar pathways to the human papillomavirus (HPV) model of pathogenesis and carcinogenesis with some differences</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>In conclusion, there is moderate strength of evidence in the literature to support a role of FcaPV-2 in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in cats. Therefore, prevention of infection with FcaPV-2 should prevent some cancers</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: #0000ff;"><a style="color: #0000ff;" href="https://learn.rcvsknowledge.org/course/view.php?id=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener">How to apply this evidence in practice</a></span></p> <p>The application of evidence into practice should take into account multiple factors, not limited to: individual clinical expertise, patient’s circumstances and owners’ values, country, location or clinic where you work, the individual case in front of you, the availability of therapies and resources.</p> <p>Knowledge Summaries are a resource to help reinforce or inform decision making. They do not override the responsibility or judgement of the practitioner to do what is best for the animal in their care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access"> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed"></p> 2021-09-16T15:07:48+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alexander Teh, Mark Krockenberger